Preoperative asymptomatic leukocytosis and postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery patients

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Preoperative asymptomatic leukocytosis and postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery patients

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Title: Preoperative asymptomatic leukocytosis and postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery patients
Author: Mahmood, Eitezaz; Knio, Ziyad O.; Mahmood, Feroze; Amir, Rabia; Shahul, Sajid; Mahmood, Bilal; Baribeau, Yanick; Mueller, Ariel; Matyal, Robina

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Citation: Mahmood, Eitezaz, Ziyad O. Knio, Feroze Mahmood, Rabia Amir, Sajid Shahul, Bilal Mahmood, Yanick Baribeau, Ariel Mueller, and Robina Matyal. 2017. “Preoperative asymptomatic leukocytosis and postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery patients.” PLoS ONE 12 (9): e0182118. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182118.
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Abstract: Background: Despite showing a prognostic value in general surgical patients, preoperative asymptomatic elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is not considered a risk factor for cardiac surgery. Whereas there is sporadic evidence of its value as a preoperative risk marker, it has not been looked at methodically as a specific index of outcome during cardiac surgery. Using a national database we sought to determine the relationship between preoperative WBC count and postoperative outcome in cardiac surgical patients. Methods: Cardiac surgeries were extracted from the 2007–2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Leukocytosis was defined by a preoperative WBC count greater than 11,000 cells/μL. A univariate analysis compared the incidence of adverse outcomes for patients with and without leukocytosis. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed in order to test whether leukocytosis was an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Results: Out of a total of 10,979 cardiac surgery patients 863 (7.8%) had preoperative leukocytosis. On univariate analysis, patients with leukocytosis experienced greater incidences of 30-day mortality, wound complications, and medical complications. Wound complications included surgical site infection as well as wound dehiscence. The medical complications included all other non-surgical causes of increased morbidity and infection leading to urinary tract infection, pneumonia, ventilator dependence, sepsis and septic shock. After stepwise model adjustment, leukocytosis was a strong predictor of medical complications (OR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09–1.36, p = 0.002) with c-statistic of 0.667. However, after stepwise model adjustment leukocytosis was not a significant predictor of 30-day mortality and wound complications. Conclusion: Preoperative leukocytosis is associated with adverse postoperative outcome after cardiac surgery and is an independent predictor of infection-related postoperative complications.
Published Version: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182118
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