Precordial S-T segment elevation mapping: An atraumatic method for assessing alterations in the extent of myocardial ischemic injury
Moroko_Precordial S-T Segment Elevation Mapping- An AtraumaticMethodForAssessingAlterationsInTheExtentOfMyocardiallschemicInjury _AmJCardiol_1972.pdf (1017.Kb)
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CitationMaroko, Peter R., Peter Libby, James W. Covell, Burton E. Sobel, John Ross, and Eugene Braunwald. 1972. “Precordial S-T Segment Elevation Mapping: An Atraumatic Method for Assessing Alterations in the Extent of Myocardial Ischemic Injury.” The American Journal of Cardiology 29 (2) (February): 223–230. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(72)90633-9.
AbstractA noninvasive technique for evaluating the extent of myocardial ischemic injury after experimental coronary artery occlusion was devised and applied to study alterations in the extent of injury produced by hemodynamic and pharmacologic interventions. The technique was then extended to the assessment of myocardial ischemic injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In 7 closed chest dogs, electrocardiograms were recorded from 15 sites on the chest wall before and after intermittent occlusions of the left anterior descending coronary artery. There was no S-T segment elevation before the occlusion; 15 minutes after occlusion the sum of S-T segment elevations (ΣS-T) averaged 15.0 ± 3.0 mm (SEM, 1 mm deflection = 0.1 mv), and an average of 4.2 ± 0.6 sites exhibited elevations exceeding 0.1 mv (NS-T). Occlusions occurring during administration of isoproterenol (0.25 μg/kg per min) increased ΣS-T to 51.0 ± 9.0 mm and NS-T to 10.6 ± 0.9, whereas occlusions occurring after administration of propranolol (1 mg/kg) decreased ΣS-T to 3.0 ± 1.5 mm and NS-T to 0.2 ± 0.2. In 8 dogs the extent of ischemic injury, manifested by S-T segment changes, was decreased by propranolol and norepinephrine and increased by hemorrhagic hypotension and isoproterenol, applied up to 6 hours after occlusion. Reproducible S-T segment maps, using 35 surface electrodes, were obtained in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction. In 15 patients studied serially, ΣS-T decreased from 54.25 ± 7.00 to 38.50 ± 6.30 mm and NS-T from 18.7 ± 2.5 to 12.3 ± 2.8, respectively, during a 24 hour period. However, in 3 patients in whom ventricular fibrillation, arterial hypotension and further ischemic pain occurred, ΣS-T and NS-T increased whereas in another patient propranolol decreased ΣS-T and NS-T. Thus, precordial mapping, both in dogs and patients, shows changes parallel to those measured by the epicardial technique and should provide a useful clinical tool for determining acute changes in the extent of ischemic injury.
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