Reciprocal Interactions between Medial Septum and Hippocampus in Theta Generation: Granger Causality Decomposition of Mixed Spike-Field Recordings
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CitationKang, Daesung, Mingzhou Ding, Irina Topchiy, and Bernat Kocsis. 2017. “Reciprocal Interactions between Medial Septum and Hippocampus in Theta Generation: Granger Causality Decomposition of Mixed Spike-Field Recordings.” Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 11 (1): 120. doi:10.3389/fnana.2017.00120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2017.00120.
AbstractThe medial septum (MS) plays an essential role in rhythmogenesis in the hippocampus (HIPP); theta-rhythmic bursts of MS neurons are believed to drive theta oscillations in rats’ HIPP. The MS theta pacemaker hypothesis has solid foundation but the MS-hippocampal interactions during different behavioral states are poorly understood. The MS and the HIPP have reciprocal connections and it is not clear in particular what role, if any, the strong HIPP to MS projection plays in theta generation. To study the functional interactions between MS and HIPP during different behavioral states, this study investigated the relationship between MS single-unit activity and HIPP field potential oscillations during theta states of active waking and REM sleep and non-theta states of slow wave sleep (SWS) and quiet waking (QW), i.e., sleep-wake states that comprise the full behavioral repertoire of undisturbed, freely moving rats. We used non-parametric Granger causality (GC) to decompose the MS-HIPP synchrony into its directional components, MS→HIPP and HIPP→MS, and to examine the causal interactions between them within the theta frequency band. We found a significant unidirectional MS→HIPP influence in non-theta states which switches to bidirectional theta drive during theta states with MS→HIPP and HIPP→MS GC being of equal magnitude. In non-theta states, unidirectional MS→HIPP influence was accompanied by significant MS-HIPP coherence, but no signs of theta oscillations in the HIPP. In theta states of active waking and REM sleep, sharp theta coherence and strong theta power in both structures was associated with a rise in HIPP→MS to the level of the MS→HIPP drive. Thus, striking differences between waking and REM sleep theta states and non-theta states of SWS and QW were primarily observed in activation of theta influence carried by the descending HIPP→MS pathway associated with more regular rhythmic bursts in the MS and sharper MS→HIPP GC spectra without a significant increase in MS→HIPP GC magnitude. The results of this study suggest an essential role of descending HIPP to MS projections in theta generation.
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