The use of dexmedetomidine and intravenous acetaminophen for the prevention of postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery patients over 60 years of age: a pilot study
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CitationSusheela, Ammu T., Senthil Packiasabapathy, Doris-Vanessa Gasangwa, Melissa Patxot, Jason O’Neal, Edward Marcantonio, and Balachundhar Subramaniam. 2017. “The use of dexmedetomidine and intravenous acetaminophen for the prevention of postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery patients over 60 years of age: a pilot study.” F1000Research 6 (1): 1842. doi:10.12688/f1000research.12552.2. http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.12552.2.
AbstractBackground: Delirium is associated with many negative health outcomes. Postoperative sedation and opioid administration may contribute to delirium. We hypothesize that the use of dexmedetomidine and Intravenous acetaminophen (IVA) may lead to reduced opioid consumption and decreased incidence of postoperative delirium. This pilot study aims to assess feasibility of using dexmedetomidine and IVA in cardiac surgical patients, and estimate the effect size for incidence and duration of delirium. Methods: A total of 12 adult patients >60 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery were recruited and randomized into 4 groups: Propofol only (P), Propofol with IVA (P+A), Dexmedetomidine only (D), Dexmedetomidine with IVA (D+A). Preoperative baseline cognition and postoperative delirium was assessed daily until discharge. The feasibility was assessed by the number of patients who completed the study. Results: All patients completed the study successfully. The total incidence of delirium in the study population was 42% (5/12): 67% (2/3) in the group P, and 67% (2/3) in the group D, 33% (1/3) in D+A group and 0%(0/3) P+A group. The incidence of delirium was 17% (1/6) in the group receiving IVA compared to 67% (4/6) that did not receive IVA. The mean range of duration of delirium was 0-1 days. One patient expired after surgery, unrelated to the study protocol. One patient in the D group experienced hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mm of Hg.) Conclusions: The feasibility of performing a project is ascertained by the study. Patients receiving IVA had lower incidence of delirium compared to patients not receiving IVA which suggests that IVA may have a role in reducing the incidence of delirium. A prospective randomized, placebo-controlled trial will be the next step in investigating the role of dexmedetomidine and IVA in reducing the incidence of delirium.
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