The recognition and categorization of upright and inverted emotional expressions by 7-month-old infants
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CitationKestenbaum, Roberta, and Charles A. Nelson. 1990. The Recognition and Categorization of Upright and Inverted Emotional Expressions by 7-Month-Old Infants. Infant Behavior and Development 13 (4): 497–511.
AbstractUpright and inverted faces were used to determine whether 7-month-old infants discriminate emotional expressions on the basis of affectively relevant information. In Experiment 1, infants recognized the similarity of happy faces over changing identities and discriminated this expression from fear and anger when the stimuli were presented upright, but not when they were inverted. In Experiment 2, infants were able to discriminate happiness from fear and anger posed by a single model, regardless of the orientation of the stimuli. From these studies it was suggested that categorizing emotional expressions depends upon attending to affectively relevant, orientation-specific information, whereas the discrimination of emotional expressions can be done on a featural basis, something that remains invariant regardless of the orientation of the stimuli. In Experiment 3, infants discriminated toothy happiness posed by several models from nontoothy happiness and nontoothy anger when the stimuli were presented upright and inverted. Thus, when salient features were available, the infants based their discriminations on perceptual aspects rather than on conceptual aspects such as categories of emotions.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:35135977
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