Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1. Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season
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Preciado, Ronny I.
Johnson, Andrew M.
Holmes, Jeffrey D.
Forwell, Lorie A.
Skopelja, Elaine N.
Echlin, Paul S.Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationHelmer, Karl G., Ofer Pasternak, Eli Fredman, Ronny I. Preciado, Inga K. Koerte, Takeshi Sasaki, Michael Mayinger, et al. 2014. “Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Study in Male and Female Ice Hockey Players over a Single Season.” Journal of Neurosurgery 120 (4) (April): 864–872. doi:10.3171/2013.12.jns132093.
AbstractObject—Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities change over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, compared with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods—Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS) and the end of the season (EOS), in addition to postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results—A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for all female subjects was also observed within the same time period. The difference in hypointensity burden was also statistically significant for men with concussions between the 2-week time point and the BOS. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time points, with males having a higher burden. Conclusions—This method extends the utility of SWI from the enhancement and detection of larger (> 5 mm) CMBs that are often observed in more severe TBI, to concussion in which visual detection of injury is difficult. The hypointensity burden metric proposed here shows statistically significant changes over time in the male subjects. A smaller, nonsignificant increase in the burden metric was observed in the female subjects.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:35644993
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