Control and Function of Arm Swing in Human Walking and Running

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Control and Function of Arm Swing in Human Walking and Running

Show simple item record Pontzer, Herman Lieberman, Daniel Eric Holloway, John H. III Raichlen, David A. 2010-02-18T20:19:02Z 2009
dc.identifier.citation Pontzer, Herman, John H. Holloway III, David A. Raichlen, and Daniel E. Lieberman. 2009. Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running. Journal of Experimental Biology 212: 523-534. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0022-0949 en_US
dc.description.abstract We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest); and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper body movement during human walking and running, in which the trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by lower body movement. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Anthropology en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Human Evolutionary Biology en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher The Company of Biologists en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1242/jeb.024927 en_US
dc.relation.hasversion en_US
dash.license LAA
dc.subject arm swing en_US
dc.subject walking en_US
dc.subject running en_US
dc.subject passive dynamics en_US
dc.subject tuned mass dampers en_US
dc.title Control and Function of Arm Swing in Human Walking and Running en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Journal of Experimental Biology en_US Lieberman, Daniel Eric 2010-02-18T20:19:02Z

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