Dating the Demise: Neandertal Extinction and the Establishment of Modern Humans in the Southern Caucasus

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Dating the Demise: Neandertal Extinction and the Establishment of Modern Humans in the Southern Caucasus

Show simple item record Bar-Yosef, Ofer Adler, Daniel S. Belfer-Cohen, Anna Tushabramishvili, Nicholas Boaretto, E. Mercier, N. Valladas, H. Rink, W. J. 2010-02-23T20:10:26Z 2008
dc.identifier.citation Adler, Daniel S., Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Nicholas Tushabramishvili, E. Boaretto, N. Mercier, H. Valladas, and W.J. Rink. 2008. Dating the demise: Neandertal extinction and the establishment of modern humans in the southern Caucasus. Journal of Human Evolution 55(5): 817-833. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0047-2484 en_US
dc.description.abstract This paper considers the recent radiometric dating (14C-AMS, TL, ESR) of 76 late Middle and early Upper Paleolithic samples from Ortvale Klde Rockshelter, located in the Republic of Georgia. We present a critical evaluation of each date based on its stratigraphic and archaeological context, its pretreatment and contamination history, and its resulting accuracy and precision, the goal being to establish a sound chronology for the site. Only by systematically identifying aberrant dates within a data set and isolating them from further analysis can we hope to understand cultural and biological phenomena on an accurate temporal scale. Based on the strict discard protocol outlined here, we omit 25% of the dated samples from the analysis. The remaining data speak to the lengthy tenure of Neandertals in the region, but also to their relatively rapid demise and the establishment of modern human populations w38–34 ka 14C BP (42–39 ka cal BPHulu). We compare these chronometric data with those from the neighboring sites of Bronze and Dzudzuana caves, as well as Mezmaiskaya Cave, located in the northern Caucasus. While the lack of key contextual information limit our ability to subject these other data sets to the same critical evaluation procedure, they provide the first interregional temporal assessment of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic ‘‘transition,’’ the results of which suggest an initial expansion of modern humans into the southern Caucasus followed by expansion along the Black Sea coast and into the northern Caucasus. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Anthropology en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.010 en_US
dc.relation.hasversion en_US
dash.license META_ONLY
dc.subject chronometric dating en_US
dc.subject discard protocol en_US
dc.subject middle to upper Paleolithic replacement event en_US
dc.title Dating the Demise: Neandertal Extinction and the Establishment of Modern Humans in the Southern Caucasus en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Journal of Human Evoluion en_US Bar-Yosef, Ofer
dash.embargo.until 10000-01-01

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