Pancreatic Beta Cell Death: Novel Potential Mechanisms in Diabetes Therapy
Martínez, María Sofía
Olivar, Luis Carlos
Velasco, ManuelNote: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationRojas, J., V. Bermudez, J. Palmar, M. S. Martínez, L. C. Olivar, M. Nava, D. Tomey, et al. 2018. “Pancreatic Beta Cell Death: Novel Potential Mechanisms in Diabetes Therapy.” Journal of Diabetes Research 2018 (1): 9601801. doi:10.1155/2018/9601801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9601801.
AbstractPurpose of Review Describing the diverse molecular mechanisms (particularly immunological) involved in the death of the pancreatic beta cell in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent Findings Beta cell death is the final event in a series of mechanisms that, up to date, have not been entirely clarified; it represents the pathophysiological mechanism in the natural history of diabetes mellitus. These mechanisms are not limited to an apoptotic process only, which is characteristic of the immune-mediated insulitis in type 1 diabetes mellitus. They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. Summary Necroptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis are molecular mechanisms that modulate the survival of the pancreatic beta cell, demonstrating the importance of the immune system in glucolipotoxicity processes and the potential role for immunometabolism as another component of what once known as the “ominous octet.”
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