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dc.contributor.advisorLogevall, Fredrik
dc.contributor.advisorWalt, Steve
dc.contributor.advisorZeckhauser, Richard
dc.contributor.authorMukharji, Aroop
dc.date.accessioned2020-10-16T13:58:12Z
dash.embargo.terms2022-05-01
dc.date.created2020-05
dc.date.issued2020-05-19
dc.date.submitted2020
dc.identifier.citationMukharji, Aroop. 2020. Sea Change: McKinley, Roosevelt, and the Expansion of U.S. Foreign Policy 1897-1909. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences.
dc.identifier.urihttps://nrs.harvard.edu/URN-3:HUL.INSTREPOS:37365778*
dc.description.abstractFor U.S. foreign policy, the long decade of 1897-1909 was one of the most consequential eras in U.S. history. The United States was vastly expanding its involvement in the world. It acquired several overseas territories, established a large presence in the Pacific, brought down a European power, deployed thousands of troops to fight wars in Asia for the first time, began building an interoceanic canal, consolidated its power over the Caribbean, tripled the size of its military, and deepened its diplomacy outside of the Western hemisphere. This dissertation explains why by analyzing six major presidential decisions of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt: the annexation of Hawaii, the pursuit of war against Spain, the annexation of the Philippines, intervention in Panama, hosting the Portsmouth Peace Conference, and supporting and negotiating the Algeciras Conference. In doing so this dissertation proposes and applies a new interdisciplinary method for explaining historical decisions, drawing from history, international relations, and decision science. It categorizes explanatory factors into two groups: “decision-generating factors” (the forces that enabled and put the decision on the policy agenda) and “decision-making factors” (the forces that swayed the president’s mind). Within those categories, factors are further labeled “first order” and “second order” to signify the degree of influence. Those are then ranked. This method allows one to compare how various factors mattered in a decision, and to what degree. The primary findings are that systemic political forces, like U.S. power and geography, tended to be the most important decision-generating factors. Events were mostly of secondary importance, affecting the timing and expression of the decision point. Once the decision point arose, McKinley and Roosevelt mattered greatly as leaders. Their choices are explained as much by their interpretation of broader social and political forces as by their peculiar psychologies, like their morality. McKinley emerges as an overlooked leader of U.S. foreign policy. His decisions were more consequential than Roosevelt’s, though they each left their own significant mark in history. This study is the first pairwise, volume-length analysis of the foreign policies of McKinley and Roosevelt.
dc.description.sponsorshipPublic Policy
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectMcKinley
dc.subjectWilliam McKinley
dc.subjectTR
dc.subjectRoosevelt
dc.subjectTheodore Roosevelt
dc.subjectTeddy Roosevelt
dc.subjectforeign policy
dc.subjectnational security
dc.subjectforeign affairs
dc.subjectinternational affairs
dc.subject19th century
dc.subjectturn of the century
dc.subjectprogressive era
dc.subjectpopulist era
dc.subjectdecision analysis
dc.subjectdecision theory
dc.subjectpresidential decision-making
dc.subjectdecision-making
dc.subjectjudgment and decision-making
dc.subjectinternational relations
dc.subjectdiplomatic history
dc.subjectAmerican foreign policy
dc.subjectAmerican foreign relations
dc.subjectU.S. role in the world
dc.subjectU.S. foreign policy
dc.subjectU.S. foreign relations
dc.subjecthistory
dc.subjectAmerican history
dc.subjectU.S. history
dc.subjectSpanish-American war
dc.subjectHawaii
dc.subjectCuba
dc.subjectPhilippines
dc.subjectPhilippine-American War
dc.subjectPanama
dc.subjectPanama Canal
dc.subjectRusso-Japanese War
dc.subjectPortsmouth Peace Conference
dc.subjectKittery
dc.subjectAlgeciras Conference
dc.subjectGeorge B. Cortelyou
dc.subjectElihu Root
dc.subjectJohn Hay
dc.subjectWilliam Howard Taft
dc.subjectGeorge Dewey
dc.subjectrace politics
dc.subjectrace relations
dc.subjectNavy
dc.subjectArmy
dc.subjectU.S. military
dc.subjectgender politics
dc.subjectcivilization
dc.subjectcivilizational theory
dc.subjectOpen Door
dc.subjectreciprocity
dc.subjectimperialism
dc.subjectU.S. imperialism
dc.subjectempire
dc.subjecteconomic imperialism
dc.subjecteconomic expansion
dc.subjectdecision-generating
dc.subjectHong Kong
dc.subjectManila
dc.subjectHavana
dc.subjectPanama City
dc.subjectPacific expansion
dc.subjectoverseas governance
dc.subjectcolonization
dc.subjectPuerto Rico
dc.subjectGuam
dc.subjectWake Island
dc.subjectSamoa
dc.subjectcounterfactual analysis
dc.subjectcounterfactual
dc.subjectJapan
dc.subjectSpain
dc.subjectRussia
dc.subject1898
dc.subjectbig stick
dc.subjectRoosevelt corollary
dc.subjectU.S.S. Maine
dc.subjectColombia
dc.subjectJohn Bassett Moore
dc.subjectdiplomacy
dc.subjectgreat powers
dc.subjectgreat power war
dc.titleSea Change: McKinley, Roosevelt, and the Expansion of U.S. Foreign Policy 1897-1909
dc.typeThesis or Dissertation
dash.depositing.authorMukharji, Aroop
dash.embargo.until2022-05-01
dash.embargo.until2024-05-01
dc.date.available2020-10-16T13:58:12Z
thesis.degree.date2020
thesis.degree.grantorGraduate School of Arts & Sciences
thesis.degree.grantorGraduate School of Arts & Sciences
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
dc.type.materialtext
thesis.degree.departmentPublic Policy
thesis.degree.departmentPublic Policy
dash.identifier.vireo
dash.author.emailaroopm@gmail.com


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