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dc.contributor.authorAbrahamse, H.
dc.contributor.authorHamblin, Michael
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-18T15:58:12Z
dc.date.issued2016-02-09
dc.identifier.citationAbrahamse, H., and M. R. Hamblin. 2016. “New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy.” Biochemical Journal 473 (4): 347–64. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20150942.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0264-6021en_US
dc.identifier.issn1470-8728en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:37933096*
dc.description.abstractPhotodynamic therapy (PDT) was discoveredmore than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPortland Press Ltd.en_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.titleNew Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapyen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.relation.journalBiochemical Journal Onlineen_US
dash.depositing.authorHamblin, Michael
dc.date.available2018-12-18T15:58:12Z
dash.workflow.comments1Science Serial ID 14385en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1042/bj20150942
dc.source.journalBiochemical Journal
dash.source.volume473;4
dash.source.page347-364
dash.contributor.affiliatedHamblin, Michael
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0001-6431-4605


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