Smart Micro/nanoparticles in Stimulus-Responsive Drug/gene Delivery Systems
Sahandi Zangabad, Parham
Moosavi Basri, S. Masoud
Shafaei Pishabad, Z.
Aref, A. R.
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CitationKarimi, Mahdi, Amir Ghasemi, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Reza Rahighi, S. Masoud Moosavi Basri, H. Mirshekari, M. Amiri, et al. 2016. “Smart Micro/Nanoparticles in Stimulus-Responsive Drug/Gene Delivery Systems.” Chemical Society Reviews 45 (5): 1457–1501. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cs00798d.
AbstractNew achievements in the realm of nanoscience and innovative techniques of nanomedicine have moved micro/nanoparticles (MNPs) to the point of becoming actually useful for practical applications in the near future. Various differences between the extracellular and intracellular environments of cancerous and normal cells and the particular characteristics of tumors such as physicochemical properties, neovasculature, elasticity, surface electrical charge, and pH have motivated the design and fabrication of inventive "smart'' MNPs for stimulus-responsive controlled drug release. These novel MNPs can be tailored to be responsive to pH variations, redox potential, enzymatic activation, thermal gradients, magnetic fields, light, and ultrasound (US), or can even be responsive to dual or multi-combinations of different stimuli. This unparalleled capability has increased their importance as site-specific controlled drug delivery systems (DDSs) and has encouraged their rapid development in recent years. An in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these DDS approaches is expected to further contribute to this groundbreaking field of nanomedicine. Smart nanocarriers in the form of MNPs that can be triggered by internal or external stimulus are summarized and discussed in the present review, including pH-sensitive peptides and polymers, redox-responsive micelles and nanogels, thermo-or magnetic-responsive nanoparticles (NPs), mechanical-or electrical-responsive MNPs, light or ultrasound-sensitive particles, and multi-responsive MNPs including dual stimuli-sensitive nanosheets of graphene. This review highlights the recent advances of smart MNPs categorized according to their activation stimulus (physical, chemical, or biological) and looks forward to future pharmaceutical applications.
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