Direct Reciprocity on Graphs

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Direct Reciprocity on Graphs

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Title: Direct Reciprocity on Graphs
Author: Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

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Citation: Ohtsuki, Hisashi, Martin A. Nowak. 2007. Direct reciprocity on graphs. Journal of Theoretical Biology 247(3): 462-470.
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Abstract: Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation based on the idea of repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine direct reciprocity in structured populations, where individuals occupy the vertices of a graph. The edges denote who interacts with whom. The graph represents spatial structure or a social network. For birth–death or pairwise comparison updating, we find that evolutionary stability of direct reciprocity is more restrictive on a graph than in a well-mixed population, but the condition for reciprocators to be advantageous is less restrictive on a graph. For death–birth and imitation updating, in contrast, both conditions are easier to fulfill on a graph. Moreover, for all four update mechanisms, reciprocators can dominate defectors on a graph, which is never possible in a well-mixed population. We also study the effect of an error rate, which increases with the number of links per individual; interacting with more people simultaneously enhances the probability of making mistakes. We provide analytic derivations for all results.
Published Version: doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.03.018
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at
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