The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women
Chiuve, Stephanie E.
Giovannucci, Edward L.
Hankinson, Susan E.
Zeisel, Steven H.
Dougherty, Lauren W.
Willett, Walter C.::94559ea206eef8a8844fc5b80654fa5b::600
Rimm, Eric Bruce::0ab2926c8242f35e5a982e3cf59f4987::600
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CitationChiuve, Stephanie E, Edward L Giovannucci, Susan E Hankinson, Steven H Zeisel, Lauren W Dougherty, Walter C Willett, and Eric B Rimm. 2007. “The Association between Betaine and Choline Intakes and the Plasma Concentrations of Homocysteine in Women.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (4): 1073–81. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/86.4.1073.
AbstractBackground: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor for many chronic diseases, can be remethylated to methionine by folate. Alternatively, tHcy can be metabolized by other 1-carbon nutrients, ie, betaine and its precursor, choline. Objective: We aimed to assess the association between the dietary intakes of betaine and choline and the concentration of tHcy. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 1477 women by using linear regression models to predict mean fasting tHcy by intakes of of betaine and choline. Results: tHcy was 8% lower in the highest quintile of total betaine + choline intake than in the lowest quintile, even after control for folate intake (P for trend = 0.07). Neither choline nor betaine intake individually was significantly associated with tHcy. Choline from 2 choline-containing compounds, glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine, was inversely associated with tHcy. These inverse associations were more pronounced in women with folate intake < 400 mu g/d than in those with intakes >= 400 mu g/d (P for interaction = 0.03 for phosphocholine) and in moderate alcohol drinkers (>= 15 g/d) than in nondrinkers or light drinkers (< 15 g/d) (P for interaction = 0.02 for glycerophosphocholine and 0.04 for phosphocholine). The strongest dose response was seen in women with a low-methyl diet (high alcohol and low folate intake) (P for interaction = 0.002 for glycerophosphocholine and 0.001 for phosphocholine). Conclusions: Total choline + betaine intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2 water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption.
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