Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease : results from the Nurses' Health Study
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Hu, F. B.
Rimm, Eric Bruce::0ab2926c8242f35e5a982e3cf59f4987::600
Manson, J. E.
Hennekens, C. H.
Willett, Walter C.::94559ea206eef8a8844fc5b80654fa5b::600
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CitationLiu, Simin, Meir J Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Edward Giovannucci, Eric Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Charles H Hennekens, and Walter C Willett. 1999. “Whole-Grain Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3): 412–19. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.3.412.
AbstractBackground: Although current dietary guidelines for Americans recommend increased intake of grain products to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD), epidemiologic data relating whole-grain intake to the risk of CHD are sparse. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether high whole-grain intake reduces risk of CHD in women. Design: In 1984, 75521 women aged 38-63 y with no previous history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes completed a detailed, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) and were followed for 10 y, completing SFFQs in 1986 and 1990. We used pooled logistic regression with 2-y intervals to model the incidence of CHD in relation to the cumulative average diet from all 3 cycles of SFFQs. Results: During 729472 person-years of follow-up, we documented 761 cases of CHD (208 of fatal CHD and 553 of nonfatal myocardial infarction). After adjustment for age and smoking, increased whole-grain intake was associated with decreased risk of CHD. For increasing quintiles of intake, the corresponding relative risks (RRs) were 1.0 (reference), 0.86, 0.82, 0.72, and 0.67 (95% CI comparing 2 extreme quintiles: 0.54, 0.84; P for trend < 0.001). After additional adjustment for body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, vitamin E supplement use, aspirin use, physical activity, and types of fat intake, these RRs were 1.0, 0.92, 0.93, 0.83, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.95; P for trend = 0.01). The inverse relation between whole-grain intake and CHD risk was even stronger in the subgroup of never smokers (RR = 0.49 for extreme quintiles; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.79; P for trend = 0.003). The lower risk associated with higher whole-grain intake was not fully explained by its contribution to intakes of dietary fiber, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E. Conclusions: Increased intake of whole grains may protect against CHD.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:41249123
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