Phobic anxiety symptom scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women
Willett, Walter C.::94559ea206eef8a8844fc5b80654fa5b::600
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CitationFarvid, Maryam S., Lu Qi, Frank B. Hu, Ichiro Kawachi, Olivia I. Okereke, Laura D. Kubzansky, and Walter C. Willett. 2014. “Phobic Anxiety Symptom Scores and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women.” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 36 (February): 176–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.10.025.
AbstractContext: Emotional stress may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the relation between phobic anxiety symptoms and risk of T2D is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate prospectively the association between phobic anxiety symptoms and incident T2D in three cohorts of US men and women. Design, setting and patients: We followed 30,791 men in the Health Professional's Follow-Up Study (HPFS) (1988-2008), 68,904 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1988-2008), and 79,960 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) (1993-2011). Phobic anxiety symptom scores, as measured by the Crown-Crisp index (CCI), calculated from 8 questions, were administered at baseline and updated in 2004 for NHS, in 2005 for NHS II, and in 2000 for HPFS. Incident T2D was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis to evaluate associations with incident T2D. Results: During 3,099,651 person-years of follow-up, we documented 12,831 incident T2D cases. In multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D across categories of increasing levels of CCI (scores = 2 to <3, 3 to <4, 4 to <6, 6), compared with a score of <2, were increased significantly by 6%, 10%, 10% and 13% (P-trend = 0.001) for NHS; and by 19%, 11%, 21%, and 29% (P-trend < 0.0001) for NHS II. Each score increment in CCI was associated with 2% higher risk of T2D in NHS (HRs, 1.02, 95% confidence intervals: 1.01-1.03) and 4% higher risk of T2D in NHS II (HRs, 1.04, 95% confidence intervals: 1.02-1.05). Further adjustment for depression did not change the results. In HPFS, the association between CCI and T2D was not significant after adjusting for lifestyle variables. Conclusion: Our results suggest that higher phobic anxiety symptoms are associated with an increased risk of T2D in women.
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