Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: Fixed-effect associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination
Cunningham, Timothy J.
Berkman, Lisa F.
Jacobs, David R. Jr.
Seeman, Teresa E.
Kiefe, Catarina I.
Gortmaker, Steven L.
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CitationCunningham, Timothy J., Lisa F. Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi, David R. Jacobs, Teresa E. Seeman, Catarina I. Kiefe, Steven L. Gortmaker. 2012. "Changes in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in the US Cardia Cohort: Fixed-effects Associations with Self-reported Experiences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination." Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (2): 267–78. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0021932012000429.
AbstractPrior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (beta = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p = 0.05) and an increase in body mass index (beta = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p = 0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.
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