Editor's choice: HIV Infection and the Incidence of Malaria Among HIV-Exposed Children from Tanzania
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CitationEzeamama, Amara E., Donna Spiegelman, Ellen Hertzmark, Ronald J. Bosch, Karim P. Manji, Christopher Duggan, Roland Kupka, et al. 2012. “HIV Infection and the Incidence of Malaria Among HIV-Exposed Children from Tanzania.” The Journal of Infectious Diseases 205 (10): 1486–94. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis234.
AbstractTo determine whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased risk of malaria incidence and recurrence in children.Newborn infants of HIV-infected mothers were enrolled at 6 weeks and followed for 2 years. HIV status was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and confirmed by HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction. Malaria was defined as (1) physician-diagnosed clinical malaria; (2) probable malaria, in which laboratory testing is requested for parasitemia; and (3) blood smear-confirmed malaria. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for development of first and second malaria episodes, and generalized estimating equation models estimated malaria rate differences per 100-child-years in relation to time-updated HIV status.Child HIV infection was associated with clinical (HR, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.61), probable (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.81), and confirmed (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.36) malaria episodes. Per 100 child-years, HIV-infected children experienced 88 (95% CI, 65-113), 36 (95% CI, 19-53), and 20 (95% CI, 9-31) more episodes of clinical, probable, and confirmed malaria episodes, respectively, than HIV-uninfected children. Among children with >= 1 malaria episodes, those with HIV infection developed second clinical (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.57), probable (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.26-2.14), and confirmed (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-3.89) malaria sooner than HIV-uninfected children.HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of malaria. Proactive malaria disease prevention and treatment is warranted for all children, particularly those with HIV infection in settings of coendemicity.
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