Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Potassium and Sodium Intake
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Willett, Walter C.::94559ea206eef8a8844fc5b80654fa5b::600
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CitationFreedman, L. S., J. M. Commins, J. E. Moler, W. Willett, L. F. Tinker, A. F. Subar, D. Spiegelman, et al. 2015. “Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Potassium and Sodium Intake.” American Journal of Epidemiology 181 (7): 473–87. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu325.
AbstractWe pooled data from 5 large validation studies (1999-2009) of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents, to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls (24HRs). Here we report on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were similar by sex but were heterogeneous across studies. For potassium, potassium density, sodium, sodium density, and sodium: potassium ratio, average correlation coefficients for the correlation of reported intake with true intake on the FFQs were 0.37, 0.47, 0.16, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. For the same nutrients measured with a single 24HR, they were 0.47, 0.46, 0.32, 0.31, and 0.46, respectively, rising to 0.56, 0.53, 0.41, 0.38, and 0.60 for the average of three 24HRs. Average underreporting was 5%-6% with an FFQ and 0%-4% with a single 24HR for potassium but was 28%-39% and 4%-13%, respectively, for sodium. Higher body mass index was related to underreporting of sodium. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction, except for sodium density. In summary, self-reports capture potassium intake quite well but sodium intake less well. Using densities improves the measurement of potassium and sodium on an FFQ. Sodium: potassium ratio is measured much better than sodium itself on both FFQs and 24HRs.
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