Iron Deficiency and Anemia Predict Mortality in Patients with Tuberculosis
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Willett, Walter C.::94559ea206eef8a8844fc5b80654fa5b::600
Bosch, Ronald J.
Fawzi, Wafaie W.
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CitationIsanaka, Sheila, Ferdinand Mugusi, Willy Urassa, Walter C. Willett, Ronald J. Bosch, Eduardo Villamor, Donna Spiegelman, Christopher Duggan, and Wafaie W. Fawzi. 2011. “Iron Deficiency and Anemia Predict Mortality in Patients with Tuberculosis.” The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2): 350–57. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.111.144287.
AbstractMany studies have documented a high prevalence of anemia among tuberculosis (TB) patients and anemia at TB diagnosis has been associated with an increased risk of death. However, little is known about the factors contributing to the development of TB-associated anemia and their importance in TB disease progression. Data from a randomized clinical trial of micronutrient supplementation in patients with pulmonary TB in Tanzania were analyzed. Repeated measures of anemia with iron deficiency, anemia without iron deficiency, and iron deficiency without anemia were assessed as risk factors for treatment failure, TB recurrence, and mortality. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) at baseline was 64%, more than one-half of which was related to iron deficiency (mean corpuscular volume < 80 fL). We found no evidence of an association between anemia (with or without iron deficiency) or iron deficiency without anemia at baseline and the risk of treatment failure at 1 mo after initiation. Anemia without iron deficiency was associated with an independent, 4-fold increased risk of TB recurrence [adjusted RR = 4.10 (95% CI = 1.88, 8.91); P < 0.001]. Iron deficiency and anemia (with and without iron deficiency) were associated with a 2- to nearly 3-fold independent increase in the risk of death [adjusted RR for iron deficiency without anemia = 2.89 (95% CI = 1.53, 5.47); P = 0.001; anemia without iron deficiency = 2.72 (95% CI = 1.50, 4.93); P = 0.001; iron deficiency anemia = 2.13 (95% CI = 1.10, 4.11); P = 0.021. Efforts to identify and address the conditions contributing to TB-associated anemia, including iron deficiency, could play an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality in areas heavily affected by TB. J. Nutr. 142: 350-357, 2012.
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