Prevalence of, Evolution of, and Risk Factors for Fat Atrophy and Fat Deposition in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Men and Women
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Jacobson, D. L.
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CitationJacobson, D. L., T. Knox, D. Spiegelman, S. Skinner, S. Gorbach, and C. Wanke. 2005. “Prevalence Of, Evolution Of, and Risk Factors for Fat Atrophy and Fat Deposition in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Men and Women.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 40 (12): 1837–45. https://doi.org/10.1086/430379.
AbstractBackground. At present, no uniform definition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipoatrophy exists. The risk factors for fat atrophy ( FA) and central fat deposition (FD) are multifactorial. We assessed the evolution and predictors of FA and FD in HIV-infected men and women.Methods. Participants (n = 452) were evaluated at baseline ( starting in November 1998) and 1 year later. FA was defined as triceps skin-fold measurement less than the 10th percentile on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for sex and age. FD was defined as a waist-to-hip ratio of > 0.95 for men and of > 0.85 for women. Predictors of the baseline prevalence of FA and FD and new cases of each syndrome after 1 year were determined. Results. The baseline prevalences of FA, FD, and combined FA and FD were 35%, 44%, and 14%, respectively. Twenty-two percent of subjects had newly developed FA at 1 year, and 16% of subjects with FA at baseline did not have it at 1 year. Also, 23% of subjects had newly developed FD at 1 year, and 15% of those with FD at baseline did not have it at 1 year. The risk of developing new FA was increased among participants with low triceps skin-fold values (P < .001), smaller hips (P < .001), higher nadir HIV load (P = .006), abacavir use ( P < .001), stavudine use (P < .001), and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (P = .002). The risk of developing new FD was higher among women (P < .001) and among participants with greater body fat levels (P = .005) and higher triglyceride levels (P < .001), and it was lower among those with a high school education (P = .003) and higher triceps skin-fold values (P < .026). Conclusions. FA and FD are common in HIV-infected patients, but may change over time in the individual. FA and FD appear to be different syndromes, because risk factors for the development differ, and the prevalence of the combined syndrome differs from the prevalences of the 2 independent syndromes.
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