Constraining Alternate Models of Black Holes: Type I X‐Ray Bursts on Accreting Fermion‐Fermion and Boson‐Fermion Stars
Rees, Martin J.
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CitationYuan, Ye‐Fei, Ramesh Narayan, and Martin J. Rees. 2004. “Constraining Alternate Models of Black Holes: Type I X‐Ray Bursts on Accreting Fermion‐Fermion and Boson‐Fermion Stars.” The Astrophysical Journal 606 (2): 1112–24. https://doi.org/10.1086/383185.
AbstractThe existence of black holes remains open to doubt until other conceivable options are excluded. With this motivation, we consider a model of a compact star in which most of the mass consists of dark particles of some kind and a small fraction of the mass is in the form of ordinary nucleonic gas. The gas does not interact with the dark matter other than via gravity, but collects at the center as a separate fermionic fluid component. Depending on whether the dark mass is made of fermions or bosons, the objects may be called fermion-fermion stars or boson-fermion stars, respectively. For appropriate choices of the mass of the dark matter particles, these objects are viable models of black hole candidates in X-ray binaries. We consider models with a dark mass of 10 M-. and a range of gas mass from 10(-6) to similar to1 M-., and analyze the bursting properties of the models when they accrete gas. We show that all the models would experience thermonuclear type I X-ray bursts at appropriate mass-accretion rates. Since no type I bursts have been reported from black hole candidates, the models are ruled out. The case for identifying black hole candidates in X-ray binaries as true black holes is thus strengthened.
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