Association Between Prehospital Vitamin D Status and Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infections
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CitationQuraishi, Sadeq A., Augusto A. Litonjua, Takuhiro Moromizato, Fiona K. Gibbons, Carlos A. Camargo Jr, Edward Giovannucci, and Kenneth B. Christopher. 2014. “Association Between Prehospital Vitamin D Status and Hospital-Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infections.” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 39 (1): 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607113511991.
AbstractObjective: To investigate whether preadmission 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with the risk of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (HACDI). Materials and Methods: Our retrospective cohort study focused on 568 adult patients from 2 Boston teaching hospitals between August 1993 and November 2006. All patients had 25(OH)D levels measured before hospitalization and were at risk for HACDI (defined as the presence of C difficile toxin A or B in stool samples obtained >48 hours after hospitalization). We performed multivariable regression analyses to test the association of prehospital 25(OH)D levels with HACDI while adjusting for clinically relevant covariates. Results: In these 568 patients, mean (SD) 25(OH)D level was 19 (12) ng/mL, and 11% of patients met criteria for incident HACDI. Following adjustment for age, sex, race (nonwhite vs white), patient type (medical vs surgical), and Deyo-Charlson index, patients with 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL had higher odds of HACDI (odds ratio [OR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-8.34) compared with patients with 25(OH)D levels 30 ng/mL. When patients with HACDI were analyzed relative to a larger patient cohort without HACDI (n = 5047), those with 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.84-13.38) and 10-19.9 ng/mL (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.28-8.85) had higher adjusted odds of HACDI compared with patients with 25(OH)D levels 30 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of adult patients, vitamin D status before hospital admission was inversely associated with the risk of developing HACDI. These data support the need for randomized, controlled trials to test the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent HACDI.
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