Formation of galactic nuclei with multiple supermassive black holes at high redshifts
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CitationKulkarni, Girish, and Abraham Loeb. 2012. “Formation of Galactic Nuclei with Multiple Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshifts.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 422 (2): 1306–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20699.x.
AbstractWe examine the formation of groups of multiple supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in gaspoor galactic nuclei due to high merger rate of galaxies at high redshifts. We calculate the relative likelihood of binary, triple and quadruple SMBH systems, by considering the time-scales for relevant processes and by combining merger trees with N-body simulations for the dynamics of stars and SMBHs in galactic nuclei. Typical haloes today with mass M-0 approximate to 10(14)M(circle dot) have an average mass of M-z = 6 = 5 x 10(11)M(circle dot) at z similar to 6, while rare haloes with current mass M-0 greater than or similar to 10(15)M(circle dot) have an average mass of M-z = 6 = 5 x 10(12)M(circle dot) at that redshift. These cluster-size haloes are expected to host single galaxies at z similar to 6. We expect about 30 per cent galaxies within haloes with present-day mass M-0 approximate to 10(14)M(circle dot) to contain more than two SMBHs at redshifts 2 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 6. For larger present-day haloes, with M-0 greater than or similar to 10(15)M(circle dot), this fraction is almost 60 per cent. The existence of multiple SMBHs at high redshifts can potentially explain the mass deficiencies observed in cores of massive elliptical galaxies, which are up to five times the mass of their central BHs. Multiple SMBHs would also lead to an enhanced rate of tidal disruption of stars, modified gravitational wave signals compared to isolated BH binaries and slingshot ejection of SMBHs from galaxies at high speeds in excess of 2000 km s (1).
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:41412234
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