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dc.contributor.authorShaman, Jeffrey
dc.contributor.authorLipsitch, Marc
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-30T11:56:40Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.citationShaman, J., and M. Lipsitch. 2012. “The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-Pandemic Influenza Connection: Coincident or Causal?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (Supplement_1): 3689–91. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1107485109.
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424
dc.identifier.issn0744-2831
dc.identifier.issn1091-6490
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:41426821*
dc.description.abstractWe find that the four most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Nina conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in the phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness, and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently, likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Nina conditions bring divergent influenza subtypes together in some parts of the world and favor the reassortment of influenza through simultaneous multiple infection of individual hosts and the generation of novel pandemic strains. We propose approaches to test this hypothesis using influenza population genetics, virus prevalence-in various host species, and avian migration patterns.
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherNational Academy of Sciences
dash.licenseLAA
dc.titleThe El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)–pandemic Influenza connection: Coincident or causal?
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.description.versionVersion of Record
dc.relation.journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
dash.depositing.authorLipsitch, Marc::b95f55eb4c57b90cfbcee3171f1156b1::600
dc.date.available2019-09-30T11:56:40Z
dash.workflow.comments1Science Serial ID 91105
dc.identifier.doi10.1073/pnas.1107485109
dash.source.volume110;Suppl 1
dash.source.page3689


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