Dynamic and Nucleolin-Dependent Localization of Human Cytomegalovirus UL84 to the Periphery of Viral Replication Compartments and Nucleoli
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CitationBender, B. J., D. M. Coen, and B. L. Strang. 2014. “Dynamic and Nucleolin-Dependent Localization of Human Cytomegalovirus UL84 to the Periphery of Viral Replication Compartments and Nucleoli.” Journal of Virology 88 (20): 11738–47. https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.01889-14.
AbstractProtein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. IMPORTANCE The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and cellular proteins required for HCMV genome replication and replicating viral DNA. We found that UL84 localizes with viral proteins, viral DNA, and the cellular nucleolar protein nucleolin in the subnuclear replication compartments in which viral DNA replication occurs. Unexpectedly, we also found localization of UL84 with nucleolin in nucleoli and showed that the presence of nucleolin is involved in localization of UL84 to the nucleus. These results add to previous work showing the importance of nucleolin in replication compartment architecture and viral DNA synthesis and are relevant to understanding UL84 function.
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