High-Throughput Small Interfering RNA Screening Identifies Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Class II Alpha as Important for Production of Human Cytomegalovirus Virions
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CitationPolachek, William S., Hanan F. Moshrif, Michael Franti, Donald M. Coen, Vattipally B. Sreenu, and Blair L. Strang. 2016. “High-Throughput Small Interfering RNA Screening Identifies Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Class II Alpha as Important for Production of Human Cytomegalovirus Virions.” Edited by R. M. Sandri-Goldin. Journal of Virology 90 (18): 8360–71. https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.01134-16.
AbstractHigh-throughput small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening is a useful methodology to identify cellular factors required for virus replication. Here we utilized a high-throughput siRNA screen based on detection of a viral antigen by microscopy to interrogate cellular protein kinases and phosphatases for their importance during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication and identified the class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class II alpha (PI3K-C2A) as being involved in HCMV replication. Confirming this observation, infected cells treated with either pooled or individual siRNAs targeting PI3K-C2A mRNA produced approximately 10-fold less infectious virus than the controls. Western blotting and quantitative PCR analysis of infected cells treated with siRNAs indicated that depletion of PI3K-C2A slightly reduced the accumulation of late but not immediate early or early viral antigens and had no appreciable effect on viral DNA synthesis. Analysis of siRNA-treated cells by electron microscopy and Western blotting indicated that PI3K-C2A was not required for the production of viral capsids but did lead to increased numbers of enveloped capsids in the cytoplasm that had undergone secondary envelopment and a reduction in the amount of viral particles exiting the cell. Therefore, PI3K-C2A is a factor important for HCMV replication and has a role in the production of HCMV virions. IMPORTANCE There is limited information about the cellular factors required for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. Therefore, to identify proteins involved in HCMV replication, we developed a methodology to conduct a high-throughput siRNA screen of HCMV-infected cells. From our screening data, we focused our studies on the top hit from our screen, the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class II alpha (PI3K-C2A), as its role in HCMV replication was unknown. Interestingly, we found that PI3K-C2A is important for the production of HCMV virions and is involved in virion production after secondary envelopment of viral capsids, the encapsidation of HCMV capsids by a lipid bilayer that occurs before virions exit the cell.
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