Identification and Characterization of Persistent Intracellular Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor Activity
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CitationKoh, Yasuhiro, Hillel Haim, and Alan Engelman. 2010. “Identification and Characterization of Persistent Intracellular Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor Activity.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 55 (1): 42–49. https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.01064-10.
AbstractPharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations significantly impact infectious disease treatment options. One aspect of pharmacodynamics is the postantibiotic effect, classically defined as delayed bacterial growth after antibiotic removal. The same principle can apply to antiviral drugs. For example, significant delays in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication can be observed after nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N/NtRTI) removal from culture medium, because these prodrugs must be anabolized into active, phosphorylated forms once internalized into cells. A relatively new class of anti-HIV-1 drugs is the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), and the INSTIs raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG) were tested here alongside positive N/NtRTI controls tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and azidothymidine (AZT), as well as the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor negative control nevirapine (NVP), to assess potential postantiviral effects. Transformed and primary CD4-positive cells pretreated with INSTIs significantly resisted subsequent challenge by HIV-1, revealing the following hierarchy of persistent intracellular drug strength: TDF > EVG similar to AZT > RAL > NVP. A modified time-of-addition assay was moreover developed to assess residual drug activity levels. Approximately 0.8% of RAL and 2% of initial EVG and TDF 1-h pulse drug levels persisted during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. EVG furthermore displayed significant virucidal activity. Although there is no reason to suspect obligate intracellular modification, this study nevertheless defines significant intracellular persistence of prototype INSTIs. Ongoing second-generation formulations should therefore consider the potential for significant postantiviral effects among this drug class. Combined intracellular persistence and virucidal activities suggest potential pre-exposure prophylaxis applications for EVG.
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