Force and Velocity of Mycoplasma mobile Gliding
Ryu, William S.
Berg, Howard C.
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CitationMiyata, M., W. S. Ryu, and H. C. Berg. 2002. “Force and Velocity of Mycoplasma Mobile Gliding.” Journal of Bacteriology184 (7): 1827–31. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.184.7.1827-1831.2002.
AbstractThe effects of temperature and force on the gliding speed of Mycoplasma mobile were examined. Gliding speed increased linearly as a function of temperature from 0.46 mum/s at 11.5degreesC to 4.0 mum/s at 36.5degreesC. A polystyrene bead was attached to the tail of H. mobile using a polyclonal antibody raised against whole M. mobile cells. Cells attached to beads glided at the same speed as cells without beads. When liquid flow was applied in a flow chamber, cells reoriented and moved upstream with reduced speeds. Forces generated by cells at various gliding speeds were calculated by multiplying their estimated frictional drag coefficients with their velocities relative to the liquid. The gliding speed decreased linearly with force. At zero speed, the force measurements extrapolated to 26 pN at 22.5 and 27.5degreesC. At zero force, the speed extrapolated to 2.3 and 3.3 mum/s at 22.5 and 27.5degreesC, respectively-the same speeds as those observed for free gliding cells. Cells attached to beads were also trapped by an optical tweezer, and the stall force was measured to be 26 to 28 pN (17.5 to 27.5degreesC). The gliding speed depended on temperature, but the maximum force did not, suggesting that the mechanism is composed of at least two steps, one that generates force and another that allows displacement. Other implications of these results are discussed.
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