Distinct pathways of insulin-regulated versus diabetes-regulated gene expression: An in vivo analysis in MIRKO mice
Kahn, C. Ronald
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CitationYechoor, V. K., M.-E. Patti, K. Ueki, P. G. Laustsen, R. Saccone, R. Rauniyar, and C. R. Kahn. 2004. “Distinct Pathways of Insulin-Regulated versus Diabetes-Regulated Gene Expression: An in Vivo Analysis in MIRKO Mice.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (47): 16525–30. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407574101.
AbstractDiabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder accompanied by alterations in cellular physiology, metabolism, and gene expression. These alterations can be primary (due to loss of direct insulin action) or secondary (due to the metabolic perturbations associated with the disease). To dissect and quantitate these two separate effects, we compared the skeletal muscle gene-expression profiles of muscle insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice and their Lox controls in the basal, streptozotocin-induced diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic states. Pure deficiency of insulin action as present in the MIRKO mouse results in regulation of 130 genes, with down-regulation of NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) and VAMP-2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), stearoyl CoA desaturase 1, and cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4B, as well as up-regulation of some signaling-related genes, such as Akt2, and the fatty-acid transporter CD36. In diabetes, additional transcriptional mechanisms are activated, resulting in alterations in expression of approximate to500 genes, including a highly coordinated down-regulation of genes of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain and one of the mammalian homologues of the histone deacetylase Sir2, which has been implicated in the link between nutrition and longevity. These distinct pathways of direct and indirect regulation of gene expression provide insights into the complex mechanisms of transcriptional control in diabetes and areas of potential therapeutic targeting.
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