CD2 regulates responsiveness of activated T cells to interleukin 12.
Gollob, Jared A.
Reinherz, Ellis L.
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CitationGollob, J. A. 1995. “CD2 Regulates Responsiveness of Activated T Cells to Interleukin 12 [Published Erratum Appears in J Exp Med 1995 Oct 1;182(4):1175].” Journal of Experimental Medicine 182 (3). Rockefeller University Press: 721–31. doi:10.1084/jem.182.3.721.
AbstractInterleukin (IL) 12 is a 70-kD heterodimeric cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages in response to infectious pathogens and interferon (IFN) gamma. The varied immunomodulatory effects of IL-12 include the stimulation of proliferation and IFN-gamma production by T cells, and it also has a central role in the development of the T helper cell type 1 immune phenotype. We undertook the production of antibodies capable of modulating the response of T cells to IL-12, and in the process we discovered two antibodies that inhibited the ability of IL-12 to stimulate T cell proliferation. In this report, we demonstrate that these antibodies recognize CD2, and we show how antibodies directed toward either the adhesion domain of CD2 or its ligand, CD58, specifically inhibit IL-12-induced proliferation and IFN-gamma production by phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells, leaving the response to IL-2 unaffected. A three-to fourfold reduction in proliferation and IFN-gamma production was observed at IL-12 concentrations as high as 1 nM, with complete inhibition occurring at less than or equal to 1 pM. This novel effect is not directly mediated at the level of the IL-12 receptor, as shown by the inability of these antibodies to block IL-12 binding to activated T cells. Furthermore, by using activating pairs of CD2 antibodies, we show that CD2 stimulation strongly synergizes with IL-12, even at 0.1 pM, in inducing both T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Cytolytic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin-mediated inhibition of the B7/CD28 interaction did not affect the T cell response to either IL-12 or IL-2, but the removal of APCs selectively diminished the proliferative response to IL-12. Based on this data, we hypothesize that CD2 has a central role in an IL-12/IFN-gamma positive feedback loop between T cell and APC, providing the key functional link via a CD2/CD58 interaction that controls T cell responsiveness to IL-12. This model provides a basis for future investigations aimed at defining the signaling mechanisms that mediate this cytokine-specific regulatory effect of CD2, and it offers insight into how a cytokine receptor and distinct adhesion molecule can interact to modulate responsiveness to that cytokine. In addition, it underscores the possibility that the clinical potential of an immunomodulatory drug like IL-12 may be governed by the presence or absence of specific costimulation.
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