The Supreme Court During Crisis: How War Affects only Non-War Cases

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The Supreme Court During Crisis: How War Affects only Non-War Cases

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Title: The Supreme Court During Crisis: How War Affects only Non-War Cases
Author: Epstein, Lee; Ho, Daniel E.; King, Gary ORCID  0000-0002-5327-7631 ; Segal, Jeffrey A.

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: Epstein, Lee, Daniel E. Ho, Gary King, and Jeffrey A. Segal. 2005. The supreme court during crisis: How war affects only non-war cases. New York University Law Review 80(1): 1-116.
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Abstract: Does the U.S. Supreme Court curtail rights and liberties when the nation’s security is under threat? In hundreds of articles and books, and with renewed fervor since September 11, 2001, members of the legal community have warred over this question. Yet, not a single large-scale, quantitative study exists on the subject. Using the best data available on the causes and outcomes of every civil rights and liberties case decided by the Supreme Court over the past six decades and employing methods chosen and tuned especially for this problem, our analyses demonstrate that when crises threaten the nation’s security, the justices are substantially more
likely to curtail rights and liberties than when peace prevails. Yet paradoxically, and in contradiction to virtually every theory of crisis jurisprudence, war appears to affect only cases that are unrelated to the war. For these cases, the effect of war and
other international crises is so substantial, persistent, and consistent that it may surprise even those commentators who long have argued that the Court rallies around the flag in times of crisis. On the other hand, we find no evidence that cases most
directly related to the war are affected.
We attempt to explain this seemingly paradoxical evidence with one unifying conjecture: Instead of balancing rights and security in high stakes cases directly related to the war, the justices retreat to ensuring the institutional checks of the democratic
branches. Since rights-oriented and process-oriented dimensions seem to operate in different domains and at different times, and often suggest different outcomes, the predictive factors that work for cases unrelated to the war fail for cases related to
the war. If this conjecture is correct, federal judges should consider giving less weight to legal principles established during wartime for ordinary cases, and attorneys should see it as their responsibility to distinguish cases along these lines.
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