Dynamic 3-Dimensional Echocardiographic Assessment of Mitral Annular Geometry in Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation
Warraich, Haider J.
Gorman, Joseph H.
Gorman, Robert C.
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CitationKhabbaz, Kamal R., Feroze Mahmood, Omair Shakil, Haider J. Warraich, Joseph H. Gorman, Robert C. Gorman, Robina Matyal, Peter Panzica, and Philip E. Hess. 2013. Dynamic 3-Dimensional Echocardiographic Assessment of Mitral Annular Geometry in Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 95, no. 1: 105–110.
AbstractBackground: Mitral valve (MV) annular dynamics have been well described in animal models of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Despite this little, if any, data exists regarding the dynamic MV annular geometry in humans with FMR. In the current study we hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, in conjunction with commercially available software, could be used to quantify the dynamic changes in MV annular geometry associated with FMR. Methods: Intraoperative 3D transesophageal echocardiographic data obtained from 34 patients with FMR and 15 controls undergoing cardiac surgery were dynamically analyzed for differences in mitral annular geometry with TomTec© 4D MV Assessment 2.0 software. Results: In patients with FMR, the mean mitral annular area (14.6cm2 vs. 9.6cm2), circumference (14.1cm vs. 11.4 cm), anteroposterior (4.0cm vs. 3.0cm) and anterolateral-posteromedial (4.3cm vs. 3.6cm) diameters, tenting volume (6.2mm3 vs. 3.5mm3) and nonplanarity angle (154° ± 15 vs. 136° ± 11) were greater at all points during systole compared to controls (p<0.01). Vertical mitral annular displacement (5.8mm vs. 8.3mm) was reduced in FMR compared to controls (p<0.01). Conclusions: There are significant differences in dynamic mitral annular geometry between patients with and without FMR. We were able to analyze these changes in a clinically feasible fashion. Ready availability of this information has the potential to aid comprehensive quantification of mitral annular function and possibly assist in both clinical decision-making and annuloplasty ring selection.
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