Geodetic Imaging of Plate Motions, Slip Rates, and Partitioning of Deformation in Japan
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CitationLoveless, John P., and Brendan J. Meade. 2010. Geodetic imaging of plate motions, slip rates, and partitioning of deformation in Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research 115(B02410).
AbstractInterseismic deformation in Japan results from the combined effects of tectonic processes including rotation of crustal blocks and the earthquake cycle process of elastic strain accumulation about upper plate faults and subduction zone interfaces. We use spherical linear block theory constrained by geodetic observations from densely spaced Global Positioning System (GPS) stations to estimate plate motions, fault slip rates, and spatially variable interplate coupling on the Japan-Kuril, Sagami, and Nankai subduction zones. The reference model developed in this paper consists of 20 blocks, produces a mean residual velocity magnitude of 1.84 mm/yr at 950 stations, and accounts for 96% of the observed interseismic deformation signal. We estimate fault slip rates in excess of 15 mm/yr along the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone and Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line through central Japan, confirming their hypothesized roles as major tectonic boundaries. Oblique convergence across the Nankai Trough is partitioned, with 3/4 of the ∼30 mm/yr of trench-parallel motion accommodated by strike-slip motion on the subduction interface and the remaining 1/4 accommodated by right-lateral slip on the Median Tectonic Line. In contrast, our models suggest negligible slip partitioning in eastern Hokkaido, where oblique slip on the Japan-Kuril subduction interface accommodates all of the trench-parallel component of relative plate motion. Inferred spatial variations in the rake and magnitude of slip deficit on subduction zone interfaces reflect the influences of megathrust geometry and earthquake cycle processes such as enhanced elastic strain accumulation about seismic asperities and coseismic sense fault motion indicative of silent slip events or afterslip following large earthquakes.
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