C60-Propylamine Adduct Monolayers at the Gas/Water Interface: A Brewster Angle Microscopy and X-Ray Scattering Study
Heilmann, Ralf K.
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CitationFukumo, Masafumi, Konstantin Penanen, Ralf K. Heilmann, Peter S. Pershan, and David Vaknin. 1997. C60-propylamine adduct monolayers at the gas/water interface: A Brewster angle microscopy and x-ray scattering study. Journal of Chemical Physics 107(14): 5531-5546.
AbstractBrewster angle microscopy (BAM), x-ray specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GID) studies of C60-propylamine adduct monolayers at the gas/water interface as a function of molecular area are reported. At large molecular areas (A> ∼ 150 Å2/molecule), BAM images reveal macroscopic heterogeneity in the film, consisting of the coexistence between regions covered with uniform solidlike monolayer and bare water surface. After compression to a limiting molecular area of 150 Å2/molecule, the film is observed to be homogeneous, with the uniform monolayer covering the entire available surface. Both the x-ray reflectivity results and the GID patterns are consistent with the formation of a uniform monolayer at A ∼ 150 Å2/molecule, while the little dependence that the GID patterns have on the molecular area for A> ∼ 150 Å2/molecule is consistent with the heterogeneity in the film. Upon further compression to higher densities (A< ∼ 120 Å2/molecule), the x-ray reflectivity results suggest the formation of a partial layer either at the molecule/gas interface or at the molecule/water interface. In this high density regime, the shift in the observed GID pattern with molecular area is much smaller than would be expected if the film were to remain a homogeneous monolayer, also consistent with the formation of an inhomogeneous partial layer. The analysis of the broad GID pattern observed from a uniform monolayer in terms of a model 2D radial distribution function, implies a short range positional correlation, extending to only a few molecular distances. The average nearest neighbor distance (d ∼ 13 Å), extracted from the GID analysis, is consistent with the limiting molecular area (A ∼ 150 Å2/molecule) assuming local hexagonal packing. These results together with the sharp facets observed in the BAM images demonstrate that the monolayer when uniform is a two-dimensional amorphous solid.
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