Now showing items 21-40 of 53

    • Large-Scale Chemical–genetics Yields New M. Tuberculosis Inhibitor Classes 

      LaVerriere, Emily; Meyer, Elisabeth; Kawate, Tomohiko; Gomez, James; Gardner, Michelle; Cigarroa Kennedy, Sofia; Wakabayashi, Shoko; Watson, Christopher; Fitzgerald, Michael; Johnson, Eachan; Office, Emma; Stanley, Mary; Audette, Rebecca; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Betancourt, Natalia; Delano, Kayla; Da Silva, Israel; Davis, Joshua; Gallo, Christina; Golas, Aaron; Guinn, Kristine; Korn, Rebecca; McConnell, Jennifer; Moss, Caitlin; Murphy, Kenan; Nietupski, Raymond; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Pinkham, Jessica; Pino, Paula; Proulx, Megan; Ruecker, Nadine; Song, Naomi; Thompson, Matthew; Trujillo, Carolina; Metcalf-Wallach, Joshua; Ioerger, Thomas; Lander, Eric; Hubbard, Brian; Serrano-Wu, Michael; Ehrt, Sabine; Rubin, Eric; Sassetti, Christopher; Schnappinger, Dirk; Hung, Deborah (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-19)
      New antibiotics are needed to combat rising resistance, with new Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs of highest priority. Conventional whole-cell and biochemical antibiotic screens have failed. We developed a novel ...
    • Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV☆☆☆★ 

      Sullivan, Zuri A.; Wong, Emily B.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Bishai, William R. (Elsevier, 2015)
      In recent years, chronic immune activation and systemic inflammation have emerged as hallmarks of HIV disease progression and mortality. Several studies indicate that soluble inflammatory biomarkers (sCD14, IL-6, IL-8, CRP ...
    • Low Levels of Peripheral CD161++CD8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Are Found in HIV and HIV/TB Co-Infection 

      Wong, Emily B.; Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem; Govender, Pamla; Sullivan, Zuri A.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Pillay, Mona; Lewinsohn, David M.; Bishai, William R.; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Klenerman, Paul; Kasprowicz, Victoria O. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Background: High expression of CD161 on CD8+ T cells is associated with a population of cells thought to play a role in mucosal immunity. We wished to investigate this subset in an HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) ...
    • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment failure detection depends on monitoring interval and microbiological method 

      Mitnick, Carole D.; White, Richard A.; Lu, Chunling; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bayona, Jaime; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Burgos, Marcos; Centis, Rosella; Cohen, Theodore; Cox, Helen; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Danilovitz, Manfred; Falzon, Dennis; Gelmanova, Irina Y.; Gler, Maria T.; Grinsdale, Jennifer A.; Holtz, Timothy H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Leimane, Vaira; Menzies, Dick; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Milstein, Meredith B.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Pagano, Marcello; Quelapio, Maria I.; Shean, Karen; Shin, Sonya S.; Tolman, Arielle W.; van der Walt, Martha L.; Van Deun, Armand; Viiklepp, Piret (European Respiratory Society, 2016)
      Debate persists about monitoring method (culture or smear) and interval (monthly or less frequently) during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We analysed existing data and estimated the effect of ...
    • Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment in North Korea: Is Scale-Up Possible? 

      Seung, Kwonjune J.; Franke, Molly; Linton, Stephen W. (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Kwonjune Seung and colleagues describe the Eugene Bell Foundation's experience of treating MDR-TB in North Korea.
    • A Novel Approach - The Propensity to Propagate (PTP) Method for Controlling for Host Factors in Studying the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 

      Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Murray, Megan B.; van Soolingen, Dick (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Rationale: Understanding the genetic variations among Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains with differential ability to transmit would be a major step forward in preventing transmission. Objectives: To describe a method ...
    • Nutritional Status and Tuberculosis Risk in Adult and Pediatric Household Contacts 

      Aibana, Omowunmi; Acharya, Xeno; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Galea, Jerome T.; Chiang, Silvia S.; Contreras, Carmen; Calderon, Roger; Yataco, Rosa; Velásquez, Gustavo E.; Tintaya, Karen; Jimenez, Judith; Lecca, Leonid; Murray, Megan B. (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Background: Studies show obesity decreases risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. There is limited evidence on whether high body mass index also protects against TB infection; how very high body mass indices influence TB risk; ...
    • Outcomes of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment with Early Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Co-Infected Patients in Lesotho 

      Satti, Hind Elkheir; McLaughlin, Megan M; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Atwood, Sidney S.; Omotayo, David B.; Ntlamelle, Likhapha; Seung, Kwonjune Justin (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      Background: Although the importance of concurrent treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and HIV co-infection has been increasingly recognized, there have been few studies reporting outcomes of MDR-TB and ...
    • Pathogenic mycobacteria achieve cellular persistence by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick Type C disease cellular pathway 

      Fineran, Paul; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Lack, Nathan A.; Platt, Nick; Davis, Lianne C.; Morgan, Anthony J.; Höglinger, Doris; Tatituri, Raju Venkata V.; Clark, Simon; Williams, Ian M.; Tynan, Patricia; Al Eisa, Nada; Nazarova, Evgeniya; Williams, Ann; Galione, Antony; Ory, Daniel S.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Russell, David G.; Brenner, Michael B.; Sim, Edith; Platt, Frances M. (2016)
      Background. Tuberculosis remains a major global health concern. The ability to prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion is a key mechanism by which intracellular mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieve long-term ...
    • A Pilot Study of an mHealth Application for Healthcare Workers: Poor Uptake Despite High Reported Acceptability at a Rural South African Community-Based MDR-TB Treatment Program 

      Chaiyachati, Krisda H.; Loveday, Marian; Lorenz, Stephen; Lesh, Neal; Larkan, Lee-Megan; Cinti, Sandro; Friedland, Gerald H.; Haberer, Jessica (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Introduction: As the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal addresses a growing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic by shifting care and treatment from trained specialty centers to community hospitals, ...
    • Plasma Metabolomics in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease: A Pilot Study 

      Frediani, Jennifer K.; Jones, Dean P.; Tukvadze, Nestan; Uppal, Karan; Sanikidze, Eka; Kipiani, Maia; Tran, ViLinh T.; Hebbar, Gautam; Walker, Douglas I.; Kempker, Russell R.; Kurani, Shaheen S.; Colas, Romain A.; Dalli, Jesmond; Tangpricha, Vin; Serhan, Charles N.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R. (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      We aimed to characterize metabolites during tuberculosis (TB) disease and identify new pathophysiologic pathways involved in infection as well as biomarkers of TB onset, progression and resolution. Such data may inform ...
    • Population Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Diagnosis with Xpert MTB/RIF: A Dynamic Simulation and Economic Evaluation 

      Menzies, Nicolas Alan; Cohen, Ted; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Murray, Megan Blanche; Salomon, Joshua A. (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      Background: The Xpert MTB/RIF test enables rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. The World Health Organization recommends Xpert for initial diagnosis in individuals suspected of having multidrug-resistant ...
    • Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: An Updated Research Agenda 

      Mitnick, Carole D.; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Hatton, Marita L.; Brigden, Grania; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.; Horsburgh, Robert; Lange, Christoph; Lienhardt, Christian; Oren, Eyal; Podewils, Laura J.; Seaworth, Barbara; van den Hof, Susan; Daley, Charles L.; Gebhard, Agnes C.; Wares, Fraser (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Introduction: There are numerous challenges in delivering appropriate treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the evidence base to guide those practices remains limited. We present the third updated ...
    • Proof-of-Concept, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin for Treatment of Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes 

      Faustman, Denise Louise; Wang, Limei; Okubo, Yoshiaki; Burger, Douglas E.; Ban, Liqin; Man, Guotong; Zheng, Hui; Schoenfeld, David Alan; Pompei, Richard; Avruch, Joseph; Nathan, David Matthew (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      Background: No targeted immunotherapies reverse type 1 diabetes in humans. However, in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) reverses disease by restoring insulin secretion. Specifically, it ...
    • Propensity Score-Based Approaches to Confounding by Indication in Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis: Non-Standardized Treatment for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis 

      Fox, Gregory J.; Benedetti, Andrea; Mitnick, Carole D.; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Background: In the absence of randomized clinical trials, meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from observational studies may provide the most accurate effect estimates for an intervention. However, confounding ...
    • Prospective evaluation of a complex public health intervention: lessons from an initial and follow-up cross-sectional survey of the tuberculosis strain typing service in England 

      Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Crisp, Debbie; Maguire, Helen; Innes, John A; Lilley, Mike; Lord, Joanne; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Vynnycky, Emilia; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam (BioMed Central, 2014)
      Background: The national tuberculosis strain typing service (TB-STS) was introduced in England in 2010. The TB-STS involves MIRU-VNTR typing of isolates from all TB patients for the prospective identification, reporting ...
    • Prospective Monitoring Reveals Dynamic Levels of T Cell Immunity to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in HIV Infected Individuals 

      Mitchell, Jessica E.; Chetty, Shivan; Govender, Pamla; Pillay, Mona; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Kasmar, Anne G.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce David; Kasprowicz, Victoria Olivia (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      Monitoring of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may prevent disease. We tested an ESAT-6 and CFP-10-specific IFN-\(\gamma\) Elispot assay (RD1-Elispot) on 163 HIV-infected individuals living in a TB-endemic ...
    • Psycho-Socio-Economic Issues Challenging Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review 

      Thomas, Beena Elizabeth; Shanmugam, Poonguzhali; Malaisamy, Muniyandi; Ovung, Senthanro; Suresh, Chandra; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Nagarajan, Karikalan (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Background: Limited treatment options, long duration of treatment and associated toxicity adversely impact the physical and mental well-being of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. Despite research advances ...
    • Quantification of Shared Air: A Social and Environmental Determinant of Airborne Disease Transmission 

      Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Ginsberg, Samuel; Piccoli, Elizabeth; Kalil, Darryl; Sassi, Angelina; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Andrews, Jason R. (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Background: Tuberculosis is endemic in Cape Town, South Africa where a majority of the population become tuberculosis infected before adulthood. While social contact patterns impacting tuberculosis and other respiratory ...
    • A randomized trial to optimize HIV/TB care in South Africa: design of the Sizanani trial 

      Bassett, Ingrid V; Giddy, Janet; Chaisson, Christine E; Ross, Douglas; Bogart, Laura M; Coleman, Sharon M; Govender, Tessa; Robine, Marion; Erlwanger, Alison; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Katz, Jeffrey N; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena (BioMed Central, 2013)
      Background: Despite increases in HIV testing, only a fraction of people newly diagnosed with HIV infection enter the care system and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. We report on the design and initial ...