Now showing items 418-437 of 6264

    • Ashtrays and Signage as Determinants of a Smoke-Free Legislation’s Success 

      Vardavas, Constantine I.; Agaku, Israel; Patelarou, Evridiki; Anagnostopoulos, Nektarios; Nakou, Chrysanthi; Dramba, Vassiliki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Antoniadis, Antonis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Ourda, Despoina; Lazuras, Lambros; Bertic, Monique; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory; Behrakis, Panagiotis (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Introduction: Successful smoke-free legislation is dependent on political will, enforcement and societal support. We report the success and pitfalls of a non-enforced nationwide smoke-free legislation in Greece, as well ...
    • Asian-White disparities in short sleep duration by industry of employment and occupation in the US: a cross-sectional study 

      Jackson, Chandra L; Kawachi, Ichiro; Redline, Susan; Juon, Hee-Soon; Hu, Frank B (BioMed Central, 2014)
      Background: Although short sleep is associated with an increased risk of morbidity as well as mortality and has been shown to vary by industry of employment and occupation, little is known about the relationship between ...
    • Aspirin and COX-2 Inhibitor Use in Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer 

      Ng, Kimmie; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey; Chan, Andrew; Sato, Kaori; Chan, Jennifer; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Saltz, Leonard; Mayer, Robert; Benson, Al III; Schaefer, Paul; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Goldberg, Richard; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles (Oxford University Press, 2015)
      We conducted a prospective, observational study of aspirin and COX-2 inhibitor use and survival in stage III colon cancer patients enrolled in an adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Among 799 eligible patients, aspirin use was ...
    • Aspirin and Decreased Adult-Onset Asthma: Randomized Comparisons from the Physicians' Health Study 

      Barr, R. Graham; Kurth, Tobias; Stampfer, Meir; Buring, Julie E.; Hennekens, Charles H.; Gaziano, J. Michael (American Thoracic Society, 2007)
      Rationale: In an observational cohort study, women who self-selected for frequent aspirin use developed less newly diagnosed asthma than women who did not take aspirin. Objective: To explore whether low-dose aspirin decreased ...
    • Aspirin and the Risk of Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study 

      Chang, E. T.; Zheng, T.; Weir, E. G.; Borowitz, M.; Mann, R. B.; Spiegelman, D.; Mueller, N. E. (Oxford University Press, 2004)
      Background: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with decreased risk of several malignancies. NSAIDs may prevent cancer development by blocking the cyclooxygenase-catalyzed synthesis ...
    • Aspirin Dose and Duration of Use and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Men 

      Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S. (BMC, 2008)
      Background: & Aims: Long-term data on the risk of colorectal cancer according to dose, duration, and consistency of aspirin therapy are limited. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 47,363 male health professionals ...
    • Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Subgroup Analysis by Sex and Diabetes Status 

      Xie, Manling; Shan, Zhilei; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Sijing; Yang, Wei; Bao, Wei; Rong, Ying; Yu, Xuefeng; Hu, Frank B.; Liu, Liegang (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Objective: To evaluate the benefits and harms of aspirin for the primary prevention of CVD and determine whether the effects vary by sex and diabetes status. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for ...
    • Aspirin intake and breast cancer survival – a nation-wide study using prospectively recorded data in Sweden 

      Holmes, Michelle D; Olsson, Henrik; Pawitan, Yudi; Holm, Johanna; Lundholm, Cecilia; Andersson, Therese M-L; Adami, Hans-Olov; Askling, Johan; Smedby, Karin Ekström (BioMed Central, 2014)
      Background: Aspirin (ASA) use has been associated with improved breast cancer survival in several prospective studies. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of ASA use after a breast cancer diagnosis among women ...
    • Aspirin Intake and Survival After Breast Cancer 

      Holmes, Michelle D.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Li, Lisa; Hertzmark, Ellen; Spiegelman, Donna; Hankinson, Susan E. (American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2010)
      Purpose: nimal and in vitro studies suggest that aspirin may inhibit breast cancer metastasis. We studied whether aspirin use among women with breast cancer decreased their risk of death from breast cancer.MethodsThis was ...
    • Aspirin use after a prostate cancer diagnosis and cancer survival in a prospective cohort 

      Dhillon, Preet; Kenfield, Stacey; Stampfer, Meir; Giovannucci, Edward; Chan, June (American Association for Cancer Research, 2012)
      Experimental and clinical data suggest that aspirin and other nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may delay the progression of prostate cancer through inhibition of the COX pathway and its effects on cellular proliferation, ...
    • Aspirin Use and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in the Physicians' Health Study 

      Ofman, Peter; Petrone, Andrew B.; Peralta, Adelqui; Hoffmeister, Peter; Albert, Christine M.; Djousse, Luc; Gaziano, J. Michael; Rahilly‐Tierney, Catherine R. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2014)
      Background: Inflammatory processes have been associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), potentially allowing for preventive therapy by anti‐inflammatory agents such as aspirin. However, the effect of ...
    • Aspirin Use and Risk of Colorectal Cancer According to BRAF Mutation Status 

      Nishihara, Reiko; Lochhead, Paul; Kuchiba, Aya; Jung, Seungyoun; Yamauchi, Mai; Liao, Xiaoyun; Imamura, Yu; Qian, Zhi Rong; Morikawa, Teppei; Wang, Molin; Spiegelman, Donna; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles; Chan, Andrew; Ogino, Shuji (American Medical Association, 2013)
      Importance Aspirin use reduces the risk of colorectal carcinoma. Experimental evidence implicates a role of RAF kinases in up-regulation of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase 2), suggesting that ...
    • Aspirin Use, 8q24 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs6983267, and Colorectal Cancer According to CTNNB1 Alterations 

      Nan, Hongmei; Morikawa, Teppei; Suuriniemi, Miia; Imamura, Yu; Werner, Lillian; Kuchiba, Aya; Yamauchi, Mai; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chan, Andrew T. (Oxford University Press, 2013)
      Regular aspirin use reduces the risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), possibly through inhibition of WNT/cadherin-associated protein 1 (CTNNB1 or -catenin) signaling. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6983267 on ...
    • Aspirin Use, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Plasma C-Peptide, and Colon Cancer Risk in US Health Professionals 

      Zhang, Xuehong; Smith-Warner, Stephanie; Chan, Andrew; Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Fuchs, Charles; Willett, Walter C.::94559ea206eef8a8844fc5b80654fa5b::600; Giovannucci, Edward (Oxford University Press, 2011)
      Aspirin use decreases colon cancer risk, but this association may vary among population subgroups. The aspirin-colon cancer association was evaluated according to body mass index and physical activity in 1,701 incident ...
    • Assessing and adjusting for differences between HIV prevalence estimates derived from national population-based surveys and antenatal care surveillance, with applications for Spectrum 2013 

      Marsh, Kimberly; Mahy, Mary; Salomon, Joshua A.; Hogan, Daniel R. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014)
      Objective(s): To assess differences between HIV prevalence estimates derived from national population surveys and antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites and to improve the calibration of ANC-derived estimates in Spectrum ...
    • Assessing and Responding to Palliative Care Needs in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from a Model Intervention and Situation Analysis in Malawi 

      Herce, Michael E.; Elmore, Shekinah N.; Kalanga, Noel; Keck, James W.; Wroe, Emily B.; Phiri, Atupere; Mayfield, Alishya; Chingoli, Felix; Beste, Jason A.; Tengatenga, Listern; Bazile, Junior; Krakauer, Eric L.; Rigodon, Jonas (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Introduction: Palliative care is rarely accessible in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Partners In Health and the Malawi government established the Neno Palliative Care Program (NPCP) to provide palliative care in rural Neno ...
    • Assessing Biases in the Evaluation of Classification Assays for HIV Infection Recency 

      Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Wu, Julia W.; Pagano, Marcello (Public Library of Science, 2015)
      Identifying recent HIV infection cases has important public health and clinical implications. It is essential for estimating incidence rates to monitor epidemic trends and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. ...
    • Assessing care providers’ perceptions and beliefs about physical activity in infants and toddlers: baseline findings from the Baby NAP SACC study 

      Hesketh, Kathryn R; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Blaine, Rachel E; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Background: As children now spend increasing amounts of time in out-of-home care, care providers play an important role in promoting positive health behaviors. Little is currently known about providers’ perceptions and ...
    • Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples 

      Lu, Chensheng Alex; Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2010)
      Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in ...
    • Assessing disability weights based on the responses of 30,660 people from four European countries 

      Haagsma, Juanita A; Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Polinder, Suzanne; Vos, Theo; Havelaar, Arie H; Cassini, Alessandro; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Speybroeck, Niko; Salomon, Joshua A (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Background: In calculations of burden of disease using disability-adjusted life years, disability weights are needed to quantify health losses relating to non-fatal outcomes, expressed as years lived with disability. In ...