The Characterization of Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation in Inactivating Airborne Microorganisms
Burge, Harriet A
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CitationKo, Gwangpyo, Melvin W. First, and Harriet A. Burge. 2002. The characterization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation in inactivating airborne microorganisms. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:95-101.
AbstractIn this study, we explored the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) in reducing the concentration of Serratia marcescens and Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) aerosols in enclosed places. We constructed a facility (4.5 m x 3 m x 2.9 m) in which both ceiling- and wall-mounted UV fixtures (UV output: 10W and 5W respectively) were installed. The use of ceiling- and wall-mounted UV fixtures (total UV output: 15W) without mixing fan reduced the concentration of S. marcescens aerosols by 46% (range: 22-80%) at 2 air changes per hour (ACH) and 53% (range: 40-68%) at 6 ACH. The use of ceiling- and wall-mounted UV fixtures with mixing fan increased the UV effectiveness in inactivating S. marcescens aerosols to 62% (range: 50-78%) at 2 ACH and to 86% (81-89%) at 6 ACH. For BCG aerosols, UV effectiveness in inactivating BCG aerosols at 6 ACH were 52% (range: 11-69%) by ceiling-mounted UV fixture only (total UV output: 10W) and 64% (51-83%) by both ceiling- and wall-mounted UV fixtures (total UV output: 15W). Our results indicated that the equivalent ventilation rate attributable to upper-room UVGI for BCG aerosols ranged from 1 ACH to 22 ACH for ceiling-mounted UV fixtures and from 6.4 ACH to 28.5 ACH for ceiling- and wall-mounted UV fixtures. Both generalized linear and generalized additive models were fitted to all our data. The regression results indicated that the number of UV fixtures, use of mixing fan, and air exchange rate significantly affected UV effectiveness (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01 respectively). However, the strain difference (S. marcescens vs. BCG) appeared less important in UV effectiveness (p = 0.26). Our results also indicated that UV effectiveness increased at higher temperature ((italic)p(/italic) < 0.01), lower dry-bulb temperature ((italic)p(/italic) = 0.21), and colder air from a supply grill located near the ceiling (p = 0.22).
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