The Cost-Effectiveness of Directly Observed Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Third Trimester in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

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The Cost-Effectiveness of Directly Observed Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Third Trimester in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

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Title: The Cost-Effectiveness of Directly Observed Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Third Trimester in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women
Author: McCabe, Caitlin J.; Goldie, Sue J.; Fisman, David N.; Loutfy, Mona Rafik

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: McCabe, Caitlin J., Sue J. Goldie, and David N. Fisman. 2010. The Cost-Effectiveness of Directly Observed Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Third Trimester in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10154.
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Abstract: Background: In HIV-infected pregnant women, viral suppression prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission. Directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) enhances virological suppression, and could prevent transmission. Our objective was to project the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of directly observed administration of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy.

Methods and Findings: A mathematical model was created to simulate cohorts of one million asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART, with women randomly assigned self-administered or directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT), or no HAART, in a series of Monte Carlo simulations. Our primary outcome was the quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) of infants born to HIV-infected women, with the rates of Caesarean section and HIV-transmission after DOT use as intermediate outcomes. Both self-administered HAART and DOT were associated with decreased costs and increased life-expectancy relative to no HAART. The use of DOT was associated with a relative risk of HIV transmission of 0.39 relative to conventional HAART; was highly cost-effective in the cohort as a whole (cost-utility ratio $14,233 per QALY); and was cost-saving in women whose viral loads on self-administered HAART would have exceeded 1000 copies/ml. Results were stable in wide-ranging sensitivity analyses, with directly observed therapy cost-saving or highly cost-effective in almost all cases.

Conclusions: Based on the best available data, programs that optimize adherence to HAART through direct observation in pregnancy have the potential to diminish mother-to-child HIV transmission in a highly cost-effective manner. Targeted use of DOT in pregnant women with high viral loads, who could otherwise receive self-administered HAART would be a cost-saving intervention. These projections should be tested with randomized clinical trials.
Published Version: doi://10.1371/journal.pone.0010154
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854147/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4553218
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