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dc.contributor.authorKanamori, Shogo
dc.contributor.authorKannady, Khadija
dc.contributor.authorMkude, Sigsbert
dc.contributor.authorKilleen, Gerry F.
dc.contributor.authorFillinger, Ulrike
dc.contributor.authorKonradsen, Flemming
dc.contributor.authorCastro, Marcia C.de
dc.date.accessioned2010-11-16T20:47:31Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.identifier.citationCastro, Marcia C., Shogo Kanamori, Khadija Kannady, Sigsbert Mkude, Gerry F. Killeen, and Ulrike Fillinger. 2010. The importance of drains for the larval development of lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(5): e693.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1935-2727en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4557328
dc.description.abstractBackground: Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology: Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings: More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion: Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control efforts of those diseases.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000693en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2876116/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.titleThe Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzaniaen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseasesen_US
dash.depositing.authorCastro, Marcia C.de
dc.date.available2010-11-16T20:47:31Z
dash.affiliation.otherSPH^Global Health + Populationen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pntd.0000693*
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedCastro, Marcia


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