Overview: Viral Agents and Cancer.
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CitationMueller, Nancy. 1995. Overview: viral agents and cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 8): 259-261.
AbstractSubstantial evidence indicates that several common viruses are clearly or probable causal factors in the etiology of specific malignancies. These viruses either normally establish latency or can become persistent infections. Oncogenesis is probably linked to an enhanced level of viral activation in the infected host, reflecting heavy viral dose or compromised immune control. The major virus-malignancy systems include hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatocellular carcinoma; human lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL); Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Hodgkin's disease; and human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Of these, a vaccine is available only for HBV. These malignancies tend to occur in early to mid-life and account for a substantial amount of morbidity and person-years lost. They are also likely to occur as "opportunistic malignancies" among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1, particularly among those who experience prolonged survival.
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