Beta-Synemin Expression in Cardiotoxin-Injected Rat Skeletal Muscle

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Beta-Synemin Expression in Cardiotoxin-Injected Rat Skeletal Muscle

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Title: Beta-Synemin Expression in Cardiotoxin-Injected Rat Skeletal Muscle
Author: Mizuno, Yuji; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Ishii, Akiko; Hoshino, Sachiko; Ohkoshi, Norio; Tamaoka, Akira; Okamoto, Koichi; Kunkel, Louis Martens

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Citation: Mizuno, Yuji, Jeffrey R. Guyon, Akiko Ishii, Sachiko Hoshino, Norio Ohkoshi, Akira Tamaoka, Koichi Okamoto, and Louis M. Kunkel. 2007. Beta-synemin expression in cardiotoxin-injected rat skeletal muscle. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8: 40.
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Abstract: Background: β-synemin was originally identified in humans as an α-dystrobrevin-binding protein through a yeast two-hybrid screen using an amino acid sequence derived from exons 1 through 16 of α-dystrobrevin, a region common to both α-dystrobrevin-1 and -2. α-Dystrobrevin-1 and -2 are both expressed in muscle and co-localization experiments have determined which isoform preferentially functions with β-synemin in vivo. The aim of our study is to show whether each α-dystrobrevin isoform has the same affinity for β-synemin or whether one of the isoforms preferentially functions with β-synemin in muscle. Methods: The two α-dystrobrevin isoforms (-1 and -2) and β-synemin were localized in regenerating rat tibialis anterior muscle using immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. Immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies for α-dystrobrevin and β-synemin were performed in regenerating muscle following cardiotoxin injection. Protein expression was then compared to that of developing rat muscle using immunoblot analysis.Results: With an anti-α-dystrobrevin antibody, β-synemin co-immunoprecipitated with α-dystrobrevin whereas with an anti-β-synemin antibody, α-dystrobrevin-1 (rather than the -2 isoform) preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with β-synemin. Immunohistochemical experiments show that β-synemin and α-dystrobrevin co-localize in rat skeletal muscle. In regenerating muscle, β-synemin is first expressed at the sarcolemma and in the cytoplasm at day 5 following cardiotoxin injection. Similarly, β-synemin and α-dystrobrevin-1 are detected by immunoblot analysis as weak bands by day 7. In contrast, immunoblot analysis shows that α-dystrobrevin-2 is expressed as early as 1 day post-injection in regenerating muscle. These results are similar to that of developing muscle. For example, in embryonic rats, immunoblot analysis shows that β-synemin and α-dystrobevin-1 are weakly expressed in developing lower limb muscle at 5 days post-birth, while α-dystrobrevin-2 is detectable before birth in 20-day post-fertilization embryos. Conclusion: Our results clearly show that β-synemin expression correlates with that of α-dystrobrevin-1, suggesting that β-synemin preferentially functions with α-dystrobrevin-1 in vivo and that these proteins are likely to function coordinately to play a vital role in developing and regenerating muscle.
Published Version: doi:10.1186/1471-2474-8-40
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