Pathologic Characteristics of Resected Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Trachea: Prognostic Factors Based on an Analysis of 59 Cases
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CitationHonings, Jimmie, Henning A. Gaissert, Ruchira Ruangchira-Urai, John C. Wain, Cameron D. Wright, Douglas J. Mathisen, and Eugene J. Mark. 2009. Pathologic characteristics of resected squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea: Prognostic factors based on an analysis of 59 cases. Virchows Archiv 455(5): 423-429.
AbstractWhile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common tracheal malignancy, few reports describe the pathologic considerations that may guide intraoperative decisions and prognostic assessment. We reviewed 59 tracheal SCC treated between 1985 and 2008 by segmental resection of the trachea, including resection of the carina in 24% and inferior larynx in 14%. We classified these tumors by grading histologic differentiation and microscopic features used in SCC of other sites. Of 59 tumors, 24% (14 of 59) were well differentiated, 49% (29 of 59) were moderately differentiated, and 27% (16 of 59) were poorly differentiated. Unfavorable prognostic factors were tumor extension into the thyroid gland (all of five so-afflicted patients died of tumor progression within 3 years) and lymphatic invasion (mean survival 4.6 versus 7.6 years). Keratinization, dyskeratosis, acantholysis, necrosis, and tumor thickness did not predict prognosis. As surgical resection is the only curative treatment; the surgeon should establish clean lines of resection using, as appropriate, intraoperative frozen section. The pathologist can provide additional important prognostic information, including tumor differentiation and extent, invasion of surgical margins, and extension into the thyroid.
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