Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme and its Relatives

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Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme and its Relatives

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Title: Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme and its Relatives
Author: Riordan, James Francis
Citation: Riordan, James F. 2003. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme and its relatives. Genome Biology 4(8): 225.
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Abstract: Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a monomeric, membrane-bound, zinc- and chloridedependent peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide angiotensin I to the octapeptide angiotensin II, by removing a carboxy-terminal dipeptide. ACE has long been known to be a key part of the renin angiotensin system that regulates blood pressure, and ACE inhibitors are important for the treatment of hypertension. There are two forms of the enzyme in humans, the ubiquitous somatic ACE and the sperm-specific germinal ACE, both encoded by the same gene through transcription from alternative promoters. Somatic ACE has two tandem active sites with distinct catalytic properties, whereas germinal ACE, the function of which is largely unknown, has just a single active site. Recently, an ACE homolog, ACE2, has been identified in humans that differs from ACE in being a carboxypeptidase that preferentially removes carboxy-terminal hydrophobic or basic amino acids; it appears to be important in cardiac function. ACE homologs (also known as members of the M2 gluzincin family) have been found in a wide variety of species, even in those that neither have a cardiovascular system nor synthesize angiotensin. X-ray structures of a truncated, deglycosylated form of germinal ACE and a related enzyme from Drosophila have been reported, and these show that the active site is deep within a central cavity. Structure-based drug design targeting the individual active sites of somatic ACE may lead to a new generation of ACE inhibitors, with fewer side-effects than currently available inhibitors.
Published Version: doi:10.1186/gb-2003-4-8-225
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