Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Periodontal Disease in U.S. Adults
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CitationArora, Manish, Jennifer Weuve, Joel Schwartz, and Robert O. Wright. 2009. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Periodontal Disease in U.S. Adults. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(5): 739-744.
AbstractBackground: Periodontal disease is a complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease that involves degradation of periodontal structures, including alveolar bone. Cadmium adversely affects bone remodeling, and it is therefore possible that environmental Cd exposure may be a risk factor for periodontal-disease–related bone loss. Objective: We examined the relationship between environmental Cd exposure and periodontal disease in U.S. adults. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). We defined periodontal disease as clinical attachment loss of at least 4 mm in > 10% of sites examined. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between creatinine-corrected urinary Cd levels and periodontal disease. Results: Of the 11,412 participants included in this study, 15.4% had periodontal disease. The age-adjusted geometric mean urine Cd concentration (micrograms per gram creatinine) was significantly higher among participants with periodontal disease [0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45–0.56] than among those without periodontal disease (0.30; 95% CI, 0.28–0.31). Multivariable-adjusted analyses, which included extensive adjustments for tobacco exposure, showed that a 3-fold increase in creatinine-corrected urinary Cd concentrations [corresponding to an increment from the 25th (0.18 μg/g) to the 75th (0.63 μg/g) percentile] was associated with 54% greater odds of prevalent periodontal disease (odds ratio = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.26–1.87). We observed similar results among the subset of participants who had limited exposure to tobacco, but only after removing six influential observations. Conclusion: Environmental Cd exposure was associated with higher odds of periodontal disease.
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