# Short-term Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Mortality: An Analysis within the APHEA Project

 Title: Short-term Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Mortality: An Analysis within the APHEA Project Author: Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Košnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea; Schwartz, Joel David Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors. Citation: Samoli, Evangelia, Giota Touloumi, Joel Schwartz, Hugh Ross Anderson, Christian Schindler, Bertil Forsberg, Maria Angela Vigotti, Judith Vonk, Mitja Košnik, Jiri Skorkovsky, and Klea Katsouyanni. 2007. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality: an analysis within the APHEA project. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(11): 1578-1583. Full Text & Related Files: 2072841.pdf (158.7Kb; PDF) Abstract: Objectives: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. Methods: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two stages. In the first stage, data from each city were analyzed separately, whereas in the second stage the city-specific air pollution estimates were regressed on city-specific covariates to obtain overall estimates and to explore sources of possible heterogeneity. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results by applying different degrees of smoothing for seasonality control in the city-specific analysis. Results: We found significant associations of CO with total and cardiovascular mortality. A 1-mg/m$$^3$$ increase in the 2-day mean of CO levels was associated with a 1.20% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63–1.77%] increase in total deaths and a 1.25% (95% CI, 0.30–2.21%) increase in cardiovascular deaths. There was indication of confounding with black smoke and nitrogen dioxide, but the pollutant-adjusted effect of CO on mortality remained at least marginally statistically significant. The effect of CO on total and cardiovascular mortality was observed mainly in western and southern European cities and was larger when the standardized mortality rate was lower. Conclusions: The results of this large study are consistent with an independent effect of CO on mortality. The heterogeneity found in the effect estimates among cities may be explained partly by specific city characteristics. Published Version: doi://10.1289/ehp.10375 Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2072841/pdf/ Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:5358882 Downloads of this work: