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dc.contributor.authorMianowska, B.
dc.contributor.authorFendler, W.
dc.contributor.authorSzadkowska, A.
dc.contributor.authorBaranowska, A.
dc.contributor.authorGrzelak-Agaciak, E.
dc.contributor.authorSadon, J.
dc.contributor.authorKeenan, Hillary
dc.contributor.authorMlynarski, W.
dc.date.accessioned2012-01-03T04:26:33Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.identifier.citationMianowska, B., W. Fendler, A. Szadkowska, A. Baranowska, E. Grzelak-Agaciak, J. Sadon, Hillary Keenan, and W. Mlynarski. 2010. HbA\(_{1c}\) levels in schoolchildren with type 1 diabetes are seasonally variable and dependent on weather conditions. Diabetologia 54(4): 749-756.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0012-186Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:5978755
dc.description.abstractAims/hypothesis: We evaluated seasonal HbA\(_{1c}\) changes in children with type 1 diabetes and its relation with measures of weather conditions. Methods: HbA\(_{1c}\) changes over more than 3 years were evaluated in type 1 diabetic patients who were younger than 18 years and had diabetes duration of more than 12 months, and correlated with measures of weather conditions (ambient temperature, hours of sunshine and solar irradiance). After comparison of autocorrelation patterns, patterns of metabolic control and meteorological data were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Results: A total of 3,935 HbA\(_{1c}\) measurements in 589 school (≥7 years) and 88 preschool (<7 years) children were analysed. Mean (±SD) HbA\(_{1c}\) level for the whole study period was 7.65±1.12%. The lowest HbA\(_{1c}\) levels were observed in late summer and the highest in winter months, with differences consistently exceeding 0.44%. Autocorrelation analysis of HbA\(_{1c}\) levels in schoolchildren showed a sine-wave pattern with a cycle length of roughly 12 months, which mirrored changes in ambient temperature. Strong negative correlations of HbA\(_{1c}\) with ambient temperature (R=−0.56; p=0.0002), hours of sunshine (R=−0.52; p=0.0007) and solar irradiance (R=−0.52; p=0.0006) were present in schoolchildren, but not in preschoolers (p≥0.29 for each correlation). Conclusions/interpretation: Seasonal changes of HbA\(_{1c}\) levels in schoolchildren with type 1 diabetes are a significant phenomenon and should be considered in patient education and diabetes management. They may potentially affect the results of clinical trials using HbA\(_{1c}\) levels as their primary outcome, as well as HbA\(_{1c}\)-based diagnosis of diabetes.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherSpringer-Verlagen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi://10.1007/s00125-010-2013-4en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3052478/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectadolescentsen_US
dc.subjectchildrenen_US
dc.subjectHbA1cen_US
dc.subjectseasonal variationen_US
dc.subjecttype 1 diabetes mellitusen_US
dc.titleHbA\(_{1c}\) Levels in Schoolchildren With Type 1 Diabetes Are Seasonally Variable and Dependent on Weather Conditionsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalDiabetologiaen_US
dash.depositing.authorKeenan, Hillary
dc.date.available2012-01-03T04:26:33Z
dash.affiliation.other100178en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00125-010-2013-4*
dash.contributor.affiliatedKeenan, Hillary


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