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dc.contributor.authorMcKinney, Scott M.
dc.contributor.authorDang-Vu, Thien Thanh
dc.contributor.authorBuxton, Orfeu Marcello
dc.contributor.authorSolet, Jo Marie
dc.contributor.authorEllenbogen, Jeffrey Michael
dc.date.accessioned2012-01-06T18:47:55Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationMcKinney, Scott M., Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Orfeu M. Buxton, Jo M. Solet, and Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen. 2011. Covert waking brain activity reveals instantaneous sleep depth. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17351.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:6918305
dc.description.abstractThe neural correlates of the wake-sleep continuum remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of adaptive drug delivery systems for promoting sleep maintenance. The most useful measure for resolving early positions along this continuum is the alpha oscillation, an 8-13 Hz electroencephalographic rhythm prominent over posterior scalp locations. The brain activation signature of wakefulness, alpha expression discloses immediate levels of alertness and dissipates in concert with fading awareness as sleep begins. This brain activity pattern, however, is largely ignored once sleep begins. Here we show that the intensity of spectral power in the alpha band actually continues to disclose instantaneous responsiveness to noise - a measure of sleep depth - throughout a night of sleep. By systematically challenging sleep with realistic and varied acoustic disruption, we found that sleepers exhibited markedly greater sensitivity to sounds during moments of elevated alpha expression. This result demonstrates that alpha power is not a binary marker of the transition between sleep and wakefulness, but carries rich information about immediate sleep stability. Further, it shows that an empirical and ecologically relevant form of sleep depth is revealed in real-time by EEG spectral content in the alpha band, a measure that affords prediction on the order of minutes. This signal, which transcends the boundaries of classical sleep stages, could potentially be used for real-time feedback to novel, adaptive drug delivery systems for inducing sleep.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017351en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048302/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectbiologyen_US
dc.subjectanatomy and physiologyen_US
dc.subjectphysiological processesen_US
dc.subjectsleepen_US
dc.subjectneuroscienceen_US
dc.subjectmedicineen_US
dc.subjectneurologyen_US
dc.subjectsleep disordersen_US
dc.titleCovert Waking Brain Activity Reveals Instantaneous Sleep Depthen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dash.depositing.authorEllenbogen, Jeffrey Michael
dc.date.available2012-01-06T18:47:55Z
dash.affiliation.other100178en_US
dash.affiliation.other100175en_US
dash.affiliation.other100161en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0017351*
dash.contributor.affiliatedSolet, Jo
dash.contributor.affiliatedBuxton, Orfeu
dash.contributor.affiliatedEllenbogen, Jeffrey Michael


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