Modifiers of Short-term Effects of Ozone on Mortality in Eastern Massachusetts: A Case-crossover Analysis at Individual Level
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CitationRen, Cizao, Steve Melly, and Joel Schwartz. 2010. Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts: a case-crossover analysis at individual level. Environmental Health 9: 3.
AbstractBackground: Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level. Methods: This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an individual level in eastern Massachusetts, US for a period May-September, 1995-2002, with a total of 157,197 non-accident deaths aging 35 years or older. We used moving averages of maximal 8-hour concentrations of ozone monitored at 8 stationary stations as personal exposure. Results: A 10 ppb increase in the four-day moving average of maximal 8-hour ozone was associated with 1.68% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51%, 2.87%), 1.96% (95% CI: -1.83%, 5.90%), 8.28% (95% CI: 0.66%, 16.48%), 0.44% (95% CI: -1.45%, 2.37%), -0.83% (95% CI: -2.94%, 1.32%), -1.09% (95% CI: -4.27%, 2.19%) and 6.5% (95% CI: 1.74%, 11.49%) changes in all natural deaths, respiratory disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. We did not find any evidence that the associations were significantly modified by socioeconomic status or individual characteristics although small differences of estimates across subpopulations were demonstrated. Conclusions: Exposure to ozone was associated with specific cause mortality in Eastern Massachusetts during May-September, 1995-2002. There was no evidence that effects of ozone on mortality were significantly modified by socioeconomic status and individual characteristics.
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