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dc.contributor.authorNunn, Charles Lindsay
dc.contributor.authorThrall, Peter H.
dc.contributor.authorLeendertz, Fabian H.
dc.contributor.authorBoesch, Christophe
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-21T16:15:38Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationNunn, Charles L., Peter H. Thrall, Fabian H. Leendertz, Christophe Boesch. 2011. The spread of fecally transmitted parasites in socially structured populations. PLoS One 6(6): e21677.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:8191222
dc.description.abstractMammals are infected by a wide array of gastrointestinal parasites, including parasites that also infect humans and domesticated animals. Many of these parasites are acquired through contact with infectious stages present in soil, feces or vegetation, suggesting that ranging behavior will have a major impact on their spread. We developed an individual-based spatial simulation model to investigate how range use intensity, home range overlap, and defecation rate impact the spread of fecally transmitted parasites in a population composed of social groups (i.e., a socially structured population). We also investigated the effects of epidemiological parameters involving host and parasite mortality rates, transmissibility, disease–related mortality, and group size. The model was spatially explicit and involved the spillover of a gastrointestinal parasite from a reservoir population along the edge of a simulated reserve, which was designed to mimic the introduction pathogens into protected areas. Animals ranged randomly within a “core” area, with biased movement toward the range center when outside the core. We systematically varied model parameters using a Latin hypercube sampling design. Analyses of simulation output revealed a strong positive association between range use intensity and the prevalence of infection. Moreover, the effects of range use intensity were similar in magnitude to effects of group size, mortality rates, and the per-contact probability of transmission. Defecation rate covaried positively with gastrointestinal parasite prevalence. Greater home range overlap had no positive effects on prevalence, with a smaller core resulting in less range overlap yet more intensive use of the home range and higher prevalence. Collectively, our results reveal that parasites with fecal-oral transmission spread effectively in socially structured populations. Future application should focus on parameterizing the model with empirically derived ranging behavior for different species or populations and data on transmission characteristics of different infectious organisms.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHuman Evolutionary Biologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021677en_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.titleThe Spread of Fecally Transmitted Parasites in Socially Structured Populationsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS Oneen_US
dash.depositing.authorNunn, Charles Lindsay
dc.date.available2012-02-21T16:15:38Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0021677*
dash.contributor.affiliatedNunn, Charles


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